|• Total||7,385 km2 (2,851 sq mi)|
The Ghurian District (Ghoryan District)is an Afghan administrative district (Wuleswali) in far western Afghanistan in western Herat Province. The district is bordered by Iran to the west and northwest. It is then bordered by other districts of Herat, Kohsan District in the north, Zendeh Jan District to the east, and Adraskan District to the south. The Hari River flows through the northeastern end of the district. The border with Iran is marshy. The population is 85,900 (est. 2012) and the district center is the city of Ghurian.
After the 1992 fall of the Najibullah government, and with the final withdrawal of Soviet military aid, Iran began repatriating Afghan refugees. Many refugees who returned to Ghurian after working as migrants in Iran's saffron industry came with corms and the skills to grow and produce saffron. The United Nations, the World Bank, and later governments supported growing saffron as a crop that is economically competitive with opium poppies and, importantly for the arid west, also requires less water than wheat growing. Ghurian farmers led in bringing a small but viable saffron trade to Herat Province.
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast. Occupying 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi), it is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. Kabul is the capital and largest city. The population is around 32 million, composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks.
The economy of Afghanistan has steadily improved in the last decade due to the return of large number of wealthy expats, the modernization of the nation's agriculture sector, and the establishment of more trade routes with neighboring and regional countries. The billions of dollars in international assistance that came from expats and outside investors saw this increase when there was more political reliability after NATO became involved in Afghanistan's reconstruction. The nation's GDP stands these days at about $70 billion with an exchange rate of $20 billion (2017), and the GDP per capita is about $2,000. It imports over $6 billion worth of goods but exports nearly $1 billion only, mainly fruits and nuts.
Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. In 2020, it had an estimated population of 574,276, and serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country. It is linked with Kandahar, Kabul and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi.
Herat is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country. Together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces, it makes up the north-western region of Afghanistan. Its primary city and administrative capital is Herat City. The province of Herat is divided into about 17 districts and contains over 1,000 villages. It has a population of about 1,780,000, making it the second most populated province in Afghanistan behind Kabul Province. The population is multi-ethnic but largely Persian-speaking.
Helmand, also known as Hillmand or Helman and, in ancient times, as Hermand and Hethumand, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, in the south of the country. It is the largest province by area, covering 58,584 square kilometres (20,000 sq mi) area. The province contains 13 districts, encompassing over 1,000 villages, and roughly 1,442,500 settled people. Lashkargah serves as the provincial capital.
Nangarhār also called Nangrahar or Ningrahar, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country and bordering Logar, Kabul, Laghman and Kunar provinces as well as an international border with Pakistan. It is divided into twenty-two districts and has a population of about 1,836,000, the third highest of the country's 34 provinces. The city of Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province.
Nimruz or Nimroz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It lays to the east of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran and north of Balochistan, Pakistan, also bordering the Afghan provinces of Farah and Helmand. The province contains five districts, encompassing about 649 villages, and roughly 156,600 settled people, the second least populous province. The city of Zaranj serves as the provincial capital and Zaranj Airport, which is located by that city, serves as a domestic airport for the province.
The following lists events that happened during 2000 in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has been the world's leading illicit opium producer since 2001. Afghanistan's opium poppy harvest produces more than 90% of illicit heroin globally, and more than 95% of the European supply. More land is used for opium in Afghanistan than is used for coca cultivation in Latin America. In 2007, 93% of the non-pharmaceutical-grade opiates on the world market originated in Afghanistan. This amounts to an export value of about US$4 billion, with a quarter being earned by opium farmers and the rest going to district officials, insurgents, warlords, and drug traffickers. In the seven years (1994–2000) prior to a Taliban opium ban, the Afghan farmers' share of gross income from opium was divided among 200,000 families. As of 2017, opium production provides about 400,000 jobs in Afghanistan, more than the Afghan National Security Forces. The opium trade spiked in 2006 after the Taliban lost control of local warlords. In addition to opium, Afghanistan is also the world's leading producer of hashish.
Adraskan is a district in the central part of Herat Province in Afghanistan. It is bordered to the west by Iran, to the north by Ghoryan District, Zinda Jan District, Guzara District, Pashtun Zarghun District and Obe District, to the east by Farsi District and to the south by Shindand District.
Ghurian is a city and the administrative center of Ghurian District in Herat Province, Afghanistan. It is 790 m high with a population of more than 54,000 people. It is situated south of the Hari River along the Mashhad-Herat highway at. There is a local TV station and a health center. Ghurian is close to the old city of Pushang.
Gulran District is situated in northwestern part of Herat province, Afghanistan and borders Iran to the west, Turkmenistan to the north, Kushk District to the east, and Zinda Jan District and Kohsan District to the south. The population is 91,500 (2012). The district center is the village of Gulran. There are no mountains in the district.
Kohsan is a district of Herat province in northwestern Afghanistan. It borders the nation of Iran to the west, Gulran District to the north, and Ghurian District to the south and east. The population of Kosan District is 52,900, which includes the following ethnic groups: 59.4% Pashtun, 35.3% Tajik, 5.1% Balouch, and 0.2% Turkmen.
Shīnḍanḍ District is one of the 16 districts of Herat Province, in western Afghanistan, and is situated in the southern part of that province. It borders Adraskan District to the north, Ghor Province to the east and Farah Province to the south and west. The population was 173,800. The district center is the town of Shindand, which has a very active market area. Shindand Air Base is located near the town. The main Herat-Kandahar road passes through the district. The Zerkoh Valley is in the district.
The Zinda Jan District is located in the central part of Herat Province in Afghanistan. It borders Gulran and Kushk districts to the north, Injil and Guzara districts to the east, Adraskan District to the south and Ghoryan and Kohsan districts to the west. The population is 55,500. The district center is the town of Zendeh Jan, situated in the valley of the Hari River.
This article deals with activities of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency related to transnational crime, including the illicit drug trade.
Bādghīs is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country, on the border with Turkmenistan. It is considered to be one of the country's most underdeveloped provinces. The capital is Qala i Naw, while the most populous city and district is Bala Murghab. The ruins of the medieval city of Marw al-Rudh, the historical capital of the medieval region of Gharjistan, are located in the province near the modern city of Bala Murghab.
Islām Qala, known historically as Kafir Qala, is a border town in the western Herat province of Afghanistan, near the border with Iran. It is the official entry by land from neighboring Taybad, Iran.
Opium Nation: Child Brides, Drug Lords, and One Woman's Journey Through Afghanistan is a 2011 book by Fariba Nawa. The author travels throughout Afghanistan to talk with individuals part of the opium production in Afghanistan, centering on women's role in it. Generally, reviewers felt that the book succeeded in its portrayal of Afghan culture and the impact of the opium trade on Afghans.
Mohammad Hashim Aslami is an Afghani agriculturist who was instrumental in growing the country's saffron crop from a $100 grant in 1998 to a $25 million export industry in 2019, despite the wars that engulfed his country during that time. The Afghani president has placed a ban on the importation of the spice from Iran due to the quality of the nations export crop initiating a 'soft' war between the two nations.
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