FIFA Women's World Cup

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FIFA Women's World Cup
Founded1991;28 years ago (1991)
Region FIFA (International)
Number of teams24 (finals)
Current championsFlag of the United States.svg  United States
(3rd title)
Most successful team(s)Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(3 titles)
Website FIFA Women's World Cup
Soccerball current event.svg 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup

The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years since 1991, when the inaugural tournament, then called the FIFA Women's World Championship, was held in China.

FIFA International governing body of association football

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, and eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991.

1991 FIFA Womens World Cup 1991 edition of the FIFA Womens World Cup

The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Contents

Under the tournament's current format, national teams vie for 23 slots in a three-year qualification phase. (The host nation's team is automatically entered as the 24th slot.) The tournament proper, alternatively called the World Cup Finals, is contested at venues within the host nation(s) over a period of about one month.

A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity, or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture. A nation is distinct from a people, and is more abstract, and more overtly political, than an ethnic group. It is a cultural-political community that has become conscious of its autonomy, unity, and particular interests.

FIFA Women's World Cup qualification is the process a national women's association football team goes through to qualify for the FIFA Women's World Cup.

The seven FIFA Women's World Cup tournaments have been won by 4 national teams. The current champion is the United States, after winning their third title in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.

2015 FIFA Womens World Cup 2015 edition of the FIFA Womens World Cup

The 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup was the seventh FIFA Women's World Cup, the quadrennial international women's football world championship tournament. The tournament was hosted by Canada for the first time and by a North American country for the third time. Matches were played in six cities across Canada in five time zones. The tournament began on 6 June 2015, and finished with the final on 5 July 2015 with a United States victory over Japan.

History

In 1971 an unofficial tournament was held in Mexico. [1] [2] [3]

The 1971 Women's World Cup was a non-FIFA sanctioned association football tournament for women which took place in Mexico in August and September 1971. Denmark won the tournament.

In 1988 – 58 years after the first Men's FIFA World Cup tournament in 1930 and approximately 17 years after the FA ban on women's football was eliminated in 1971 [4] – FIFA hosted an invitational in China as a test to see if a global women's World Cup was feasible. Twelve national teams took part in the competition – four from UEFA, three from AFC, two from CONCACAF and one each from CONMEBOL, CAF and OFC. The tournament saw European champion Norway defeat Sweden 1–0 in the final to win the tournament, while Brazil clinched third place by beating the hosts in a penalty shootout. The competition was deemed a success and on 30 June FIFA approved the establishment of an official World Cup, which was to take place in 1991 again in China. [5] Again, twelve teams competed, this time culminating in the United States beating Norway in the final 2-1.

1930 FIFA World Cup 1930 edition of the FIFA World Cup

The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 to 30 July 1930. FIFA, football's international governing body, selected Uruguay as host nation, as the country would be celebrating the centenary of its first constitution, and the Uruguay national football team had successfully retained their football title at the 1928 Summer Olympics. All matches were played in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, the majority at the Estadio Centenario, which was built for the tournament.

1988 FIFA Womens Invitation Tournament

The 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament, or International Women's Football Tournament, was an invitational international women's football tournament organized by FIFA in China from 1 to 12 June 1988. The competition was a test to study if a global women's World Cup was feasible following the experience of non-FIFA invitational competitions such as the Mundialito (1984–88) and the Women's World Invitational Tournament (1978–87). The competition was a success and on 30 June FIFA approved the establishment of an official World Cup for 1991, which would also be held in China.

UEFA international sport governing body

The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members.

Map of countries' best results Women's World Cup Results.PNG
Map of countries' best results

In the 1999 edition, one of the most famous moments of the tournament was American defender Brandi Chastain's victory celebration after scoring the Cup-winning penalty kick against China. She took off her jersey and waved it over her head (as men frequently do), showing her muscular torso and sports bra as she celebrated. The 1999 final in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California had an attendance of 90,185, a world record for a women's sporting event. [6]

Brandi Chastain American soccer player

Brandi Denise Chastain is an American retired soccer player, two-time FIFA Women's World Cup champion, two-time Olympic gold-medalist, coach, and sports broadcaster. She played for the United States women's national soccer team from 1988–2004. In her 192 caps on the team, she scored 30 goals playing primarily in the defender and midfielder positions. She scored a World Cup-winning penalty shootout goal against China in the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup final.

China womens national football team womens national association football team representing the Peoples Republic of China

The Chinese women's national football team, recognized as China PR by FIFA, is governed by the Chinese Football Association. The team is colloquially referred to as "Zhōngguó Nǚzú".

Sports bra brassiere designed to support the breasts during strenuous exercise

A sports bra is a bra that provides support to female breasts during physical exercise. Sturdier than typical bras, they minimize breast movement, alleviate discomfort, and reduce potential damage to chest ligaments. Many women wear sports bras to reduce pain, and physical discomfort caused by breast movement during exercise. Some sports bras are designed to be worn as outerwear during exercise such as jogging.

The 1999 and 2003 Women's World Cups were both held in the United States; in 2003 China was supposed to host it, but the tournament was moved because of SARS. [7] As compensation, China retained its automatic qualification to the 2003 tournament as host nation, and was automatically chosen to host the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup. Germany hosted the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, as decided by vote in October 2007. In March 2011, FIFA awarded Canada the right to host the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. The 2015 edition saw the field expand from 16 to 24 teams. [8]

During the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, both Formiga of Brazil and Homare Sawa of Japan made a record of appearing in six World Cups, [9] a feat that had never been achieved before by either female or male players. Christie Rampone is the oldest player to ever play in a Women's World Cup match, at the age of 40 years. [10]

In March 2015, FIFA awarded France the right to host the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup over South Korea. [11] The tournament will begin on 1 June 2019 and the final will be played on 30 June 2019; [12] both the opening and final matches will be played at Parc Olympique Lyonnais, a venue with a capacity of 58,000 in the Lyon suburb of Décines.

Trophy

Designer: William Sawaya, Sawaya & Moroni, Milan, Italy

Year of original design: 1998

Height: 47cm

Weight: 4.6kg

Material: bronze, gold-plated; polished aluminium; Verde Candeias Granite

The Official Trophy includes a plate at the base bearing the engraved year and name of each FIFA Women's World Cup™ champion. [13]

It was designed by William Sawaya and hand-crafted by Milanese specialists Sawaya & Moroni for the 1999 tournament, in the form of a spiral band, enclosing a football at the top, that aims to capture the athleticism, dynamism and elegance of international women's football. In the 2010s, it was fitted with a cone-shaped base. Underneath the base, the name of each of the tournament's previous winners is engraved. [14] The Official Trophy is nearly 18 inches tall and is made of sterling silver clad in 23-karat yellow and white gold, with an estimated value in 2015 of approximately $30,000. By contrast, the men's World Cup trophy is fabricated in 18-karat gold and has a precious metal value of $150,000. However, a new Winner's Trophy is constructed for each women's champion to take home, while there is only one original men's trophy. [15]

Format

Qualification

Qualifying tournaments are held within the six FIFA continental zones (Africa, Asia, North and Central America and Caribbean, South America, Oceania, Europe), and are organised by their respective confederations: Confederation of African Football (CAF), Asian Football Confederation (AFC), Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF), South American Football Confederation CONMEBOL, Oceania Football Confederation (OFC), and Union of European Football Associations UEFA). For each tournament, FIFA decides beforehand the number of berths awarded to each of the continental zones, based on the relative strength of the confederations' teams. The hosts of the World Cup receive an automatic berth in the finals. Since the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, the number of finalists increased from 16 to 24. [16]

Final tournament

The final tournament has featured between twelve and twenty-four national teams competing over about one month in the host nation(s). There are two stages: the group stage followed by the knockout stage. [17]

In the group stage, teams are drawn into groups of four teams each. Each group plays a round-robin tournament, in which each team is scheduled for three matches against other teams in the same group. The last round of matches of each group is scheduled at the same time to preserve fairness among all four teams. In the 2015 24-team format, the two teams finishing first and second in each group and the four best teams among those ranked third qualify for the round of 16, also called the knockout stage. Points are used to rank the teams within a group. Since 1994, three points have been awarded for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss (before, winners received two points).

The ranking of each team in each group is determined as follows: [17]

  1. Greatest number of points in group matches
  2. Greatest goal difference in group matches
  3. Greatest number of goals scored in group matches
  4. If more than one team remain level after applying the above criteria, their ranking will be determined as follows:
    1. Greatest number of points in head-to-head matches among those teams
    2. Greatest goal difference in head-to-head matches among those teams
    3. Greatest number of goals scored in head-to-head matches among those teams
  5. If any of the teams above remain level after applying the above criteria, their ranking will be determined by the drawing of lots

The knockout stage is a single-elimination tournament in which teams play each other in one-off matches, with extra time and penalty shootouts used to decide the winner if necessary. It begins with the round of 16. This is followed by the quarter-finals, semi-finals, the third-place match (contested by the losing semi-finalists), and the final. [17]

Hosts and results

#YearHostChampionsScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeTeams
1 1991  Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Flag of the United States.svg
United States
2–1 Flag of Norway.svg
Norway
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
4–0Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
12
2 1995  Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Flag of Norway.svg
Norway
2–0 Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
2–0Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
China PR
12
3 1999  Flag of the United States.svg  United States Flag of the United States.svg
United States
0–0 ( a.e.t. )
(5–4 p )
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
China PR
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
0–0 [A]
(5–4 p )
Flag of Norway.svg
Norway
16
4 2003  Flag of the United States.svg  United States Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
2–1 (a.e.t.)Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
3–1Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Canada
16
5 2007  Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
2–0 Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
4–1Flag of Norway.svg
Norway
16
6 2011  Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
2–2 ( a.e.t. )
(3–1 p )
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
Flag of Sweden.svg
Sweden
2–1Flag of France.svg
France
16
7 2015  Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Flag of the United States.svg
United States
5–2 Flag of Japan.svg
Japan
Flag of England.svg
England
1–0( a.e.t. )Flag of Germany.svg
Germany
24
8 2019  Flag of France.svg  France 24

A No extra time was played. [18]

All-time performance

#TeamTitlesRunners-upThird PlaceFourth PlaceTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 3 (1991, 1999, 2015)1 (2011)3 (1995, 2003, 2007)7
2Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 2 (2003, 2007)1 (1995)2 (1991, 2015)5
3Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 1 (1995)1 (1991)2 (1999, 2007)4
4Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1 (2011)1 (2015)2
5Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1 (2003)2 (1991, 2011)3
6Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1 (2007)1 (1999)2
7Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China PR 1 (1999)1 (1995)2
8Flag of England.svg  England 1 (2015)1
9Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1 (2003)1
Flag of France.svg  France 1 (2011)1

Overall team records

As per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws. 3 points per win, 1 point per draw and 0 points per loss.

The table is accurate as of the end of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Teams in bold are part of the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup.

RankTeamPartPldWDLGFGAGDPoints
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 843336411235+77105
2Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 839265811137+7483
3Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 835223108645+4169
4Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 833185105942+1759
5Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 83018485935+2458
6Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China PR 72915685229+2351
7Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 829133133654-1842
8Flag of England.svg  England 51910453025+534
9Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 72365123049-1923
10Flag of France.svg  France 4146352216+621
11Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 72255122944-1520
12Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 284041614+212
13Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 82233161856-3812
14Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 4133281220-811
15Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 37313118+310
16Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 41431101926-710
17Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 2420294+56
18Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 2712449-55
19Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 2411234-14
20Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 37115519-144
21Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 39117630-244
22Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 14103115+63
23Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 23102310-73
24Flag of Chinese Taipei (FIFA).svg  Chinese Taipei 14103215-133
25Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 512039729-223
26Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 39036630-243
27Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 1302134-12
28Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 2301224-21
29Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea 1300327-50
30Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 13003316-130
31Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 13003117-160
32Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 36006233-310
33Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 1--------
33Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 1--------
33Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 1--------
33Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1--------

Attendance

 TournamentMatchesAttendanceRef
 TotalAverageHighest
1 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg 1991 China 26510,00018,34465,000 [19]
2 Flag of Sweden.svg 1995 Sweden 26112,2134,31617,158 [19]
3 Flag of the United States.svg 1999 USA 321,214,20937,94490,185 [19]
4 Flag of the United States.svg 2003 USA 32679,66421,24034,144 [19]
5 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg 2007 China 321,190,97137,21855,832 [19]
6 Flag of Germany.svg 2011 Germany 32845,75126,43073,680 [19] [20]
7 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg 2015 Canada 521,353,50626,02954,027 [21]

Notes:

Broadcasting

As of 2017, the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup Final was the most watched soccer match in American history with nearly 23 million viewers, [22] more than the 2015 NBA Finals and Stanley Cup. [23] It was also the most watched Spanish-language broadcast in tournament history. [22] More than 750 million viewers were reported to have watched the tournament worldwide. [24]

Awards

At the end of each World Cup, awards are presented to select players and teams for accomplishments other than their final team positions in the tournament. There are currently seven awards:

Another award is presented a week after the final match:

One past award is no longer presented:

Player records

Most goals

Marta of Brazil is the all-time leading scorer of the World Cup. Marta (10), meio-campista, craque, genial, DSC00982.jpg
Marta of Brazil is the all-time leading scorer of the World Cup.
Birgit Prinz is tied for the second most goals in all tournaments, and won the title twice representing Germany. Birgit Prinz.jpg
Birgit Prinz is tied for the second most goals in all tournaments, and won the title twice representing Germany.
RankNameWorld CupTotal
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
'91
Flag of Sweden.svg
'95
Flag of the United States.svg
'99
Flag of the United States.svg
'03
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
'07
Flag of Germany.svg
'11
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
'15
Flag of France.svg
'19
1 Flag of Brazil.svg Marta 374115
2 Flag of Germany.svg Birgit Prinz 1175014
Flag of the United States.svg Abby Wambach 364114
4 Flag of the United States.svg Michelle Akers 100212
5 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Sun Wen 127111
Flag of Germany.svg Bettina Wiegmann 333211
7 Flag of Norway.svg Ann Kristin Aarønes 6410
Flag of Germany.svg Heidi Mohr 7310
9 Flag of Norway.svg Linda Medalen 6219
Flag of Norway.svg Hege Riise 15309
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Christine Sinclair 33129
Formiga (08), meio-campista, DSC00910-2012-26-07.jpg
Homare Sawa in 2011.JPG
Formiga and Homare Sawa are the only players to appear in six Women's World Cup editions.

Most tournaments

#PlayerAppearances
1 Flag of Brazil.svg Formiga 6 (1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015)
Flag of Japan.svg Homare Sawa 6 (1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015)
3 Flag of the United States.svg Kristine Lilly 5 (1991, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007)
Flag of Norway.svg Bente Nordby 5 (1991*, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007)
Flag of Germany.svg Birgit Prinz 5 (1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Karina LeBlanc 5 (1999*, 2003, 2007*, 2011, 2015*)
Flag of Germany.svg Nadine Angerer 5 (1999*, 2003*, 2007, 2011, 2015)
Flag of the United States.svg Christie Rampone 5 (1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015)

*Did not play but was part of the squad.

Most matches

#PlayerMatches
1 Flag of the United States.svg Kristine Lilly 30
2 Flag of the United States.svg Abby Wambach 25
3 Flag of Brazil.svg Formiga 24
Flag of the United States.svg Julie Foudy 24
Flag of Germany.svg Birgit Prinz 24
Flag of Japan.svg Homare Sawa 24
7 Flag of the United States.svg Joy Fawcett 23
Flag of the United States.svg Mia Hamm 23
9 Flag of Norway.svg Bente Nordby 22
Flag of Norway.svg Hege Riise 22
Flag of Germany.svg Bettina Wiegmann 22

See also

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