Women's World Chess Championship

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Current Women's World Chess Champion Ju Wenjun from China

The Women's World Chess Championship (WWCC) is played to determine the women's world champion in chess. Like the World Chess Championship, it is administered by FIDE.

Contents

Unlike with most sports recognized by the International Olympic Committee, where competition is either "mixed" (containing everyone) or split into men and women, [1] in chess women are both allowed to compete in the "open" division (including the World Chess Championship) yet also have a separate Women's Championship (only open to females). [2]

History

Era of Menchik

The Women's World Championship was established by FIDE in 1927 as a single tournament held alongside the Chess Olympiad. The winner of that tournament, Vera Menchik, did not have any special rights as the men's champion did—instead she had to defend her title by playing as many games as all the challengers. She did this successfully in every other championship in her lifetime (1930, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1937 and 1939).

Dominance of the Soviet Union players (1950–1991)

1981 Women's World Championship, Maia Chiburdanidze vs. Nana Alexandria

Menchik died, still champion, in 1944 in a German air raid on Kent. The next championship was another round-robin tournament in 1949–50 and was won by Lyudmila Rudenko. Thereafter a system similar to that of the men's championship was established, with a cycle of Candidates events (and later Interzonals) to pick a challenger to face the reigning champion.

The first such Candidates tournament was held in Moscow, 1952. Elisaveta Bykova won and proceeded to defeat Rudenko with seven wins, five losses, and two draws to become the third champion. The next Candidates tournament was won by Olga Rubtsova. Instead of directly playing Bykova, however, FIDE decided that the championship should be held between the three top players in the world. Rubtsova won at Moscow in 1956, one-half point ahead of Bykova, who finished five points ahead of Rudenko. Bykova regained the title in 1958 and defended it against Kira Zvorykina, winner of a Candidates tournament, in 1959.

The fourth Candidates tournament was held in 1961 in Vrnjacka Banja, and was utterly dominated by Nona Gaprindashvili of Georgia, who won with ten wins, zero losses, and six draws. She then decisively defeated Bykova with seven wins, no losses, and four draws in Moscow, 1962 to become champion. Gaprindashvili defended her title against Alla Kushnir of Russia at Riga 1965 and Tbilisi/Moscow 1969. In 1972, FIDE introduced the same system for the women's championship as with the men's: a series of Interzonal tournaments, followed by the Candidates matches. Kushnir won again, only to be defeated by Gaprindashvili at Riga 1972. Gaprindashvili defended the title one last time against Nana Alexandria of Georgia at Pitsunda/Tbilisi 1975.

In 1976–1978 Candidates cycle, 17-year-old Maya Chiburdanidze of Georgia ended up the surprise star, defeating Nana Alexandria, Elena Akhmilovskaya, and Alla Kushnir to face Gaprindashvili in the 1978 finals at Tbilisi. Chiburdanidze proceeded to soundly defeat Gaprindashvili, marking the end of one Georgian's domination and the beginning of another's. Chiburdanidze defended her title against Alexandria at Borjomi/Tbilisi 1981 and Irina Levitina at Volgograd 1984. Following this, FIDE reintroduced the Candidates tournament system. Akhmilovskaya, who had earlier lost to Chiburdanidze in the Candidates matches, won the tournament was but was still defeated by Chiburdanidze at Sofia 1986. Chiburdanidze's final title defense came against Nana Ioseliani at Telavi 1988.

Post-Soviet era (1991–2010)

Chiburdanidze's domination ended in Manila 1991, where the young Chinese star Xie Jun defeated her, after finishing second to the still-active Gaprindashvili in an Interzonal, tying with Alisa Marić in the Candidates tournament, and then beating Maric in a tie-breaker match.

It was during this time that the three Polgar sisters Susan (also known as Zsuzsa), Sofia (Zsófia), and Judit emerged as dominant players. However they tended to compete in men's tournaments, avoiding the women's championship.

Susan Polgar eventually changed her policy. She won the 1992 Candidates tournament in Shanghai. The Candidates final—an eight-game match between the top two finishers in the tournament—was a drawn match between Polgar and Ioseliani, even after two tiebreaks. The match was decided by a lottery, which Ioseliani won. She was then promptly crushed by Xie Jun (812–212) in the championship at Monaco 1993.

The next cycle was dominated by Polgar. She tied with Chiburdanidze in the Candidates tournament, defeated her easily in the match (512–112), and then decisively defeated Xie Jun (812–412) in Jaén 1996 for the championship.

In 1997, Russian Alisa Galliamova and Chinese Xie Jun finished first and second, but Galliamova refused to play the final match entirely in China. FIDE eventually awarded the match to Xie Jun by default.

However, by the time all these delays were sorted out, Polgar had given birth to her first child. She requested that the match be postponed. FIDE refused, and eventually set up the championship to be between Galliamova and Xie Jun. The championship was held in Kazan, Tatarstan and Shenyang, China, and Xie Jun won with five wins, three losses, and seven draws.

In 2000 a knock-out event, similar to the FIDE men's title and held alongside it, was the new format of the women's world championship. It was won by Xie Jun. In 2001 a similar event determined the champion, Zhu Chen. Another knock-out, this one held separately from the men's event, in Elista, the capital of the Russian republic of Kalmykia (of which FIDE President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov is president), from May 21 to June 8, 2004, produced Bulgarian Antoaneta Stefanova as champion. As with Polgar five years prior, Zhu Chen did not participate due to pregnancy.

In 2006 the title returned to China. The new champion Xu Yuhua was pregnant during the championship.

In 2008, the title went to Russian grandmaster Alexandra Kosteniuk, who, in the final, beat Chinese prodigy Hou Yifan 212–112, then aged 14 (see Women's World Chess Championship 2008).

In 2010 the title returned to China once again. Hou Yifan, the runner-up in the previous championship, became the youngest ever women's world champion at the age of 16. She beat her compatriot WGM Ruan Lufei 2–2 (classic) 3–1 (rapid playoffs).

Yearly tournaments (2010–2018)

Women's World Chess Championship, Tirana 2011

Beginning from 2010, the Women's World Chess Championship would be held annually in alternating formats. In even years a 64-player knockout system would be used, in the odd years a classical match featuring only two players would be held. [3] The 2011 edition was between the 2010 champion Hou Yifan and the winner of the FIDE Women's Grand Prix 2009–2011. Since Hou Yifan won the Grand Prix, her challenger was the runner-up, Koneru Humpy. [4]

In 2011 Hou Yifan successfully defended her women's world champion title in the Women's World Chess Championship 2011 in Tirana, Albania against Koneru Humpy. Hou won three games and drew five in the ten-game match, winning the title with two games to spare.

Hou Yifan was knocked-out in the second round in Women's World Chess Championship 2012, which was played in Khanty Mansiysk. Anna Ushenina, seeded 30th in the tournament, won the final against Antoaneta Stefanova 312–212.

The Women's World Chess Championship 2013 was a match over 10 games between defending champion Anna Ushenina and Hou Yifan who had won the FIDE Women's Grand Prix 2011–2012. After seven of ten games Hou Yifan won the match 5.5 to 1.5 to retake the title.

After Hou declined to defend her title at the Women's World Chess Championship 2015, the title was won by Mariya Muzychuk, who defeated Natalia Pogonina in the final.

Hou defeated Muzychuk 6-3 to reclaim the Women's World Chess Championship 2016 title for her 4th championship in March 2016.

The following year Tan Zhongyi defeated Anna Muzychuk for the title at the Women's World Chess Championship 2017.

Tan lost the title defending it against Ju Wenjun (with Hou not participating at this event) at the Women's World Chess Championship Match 2018.

Return to match-only format

After the 2018 championship the new FIDE president Arkady Dvorkovich announced the format would be changed back to matches only. He said the many different champions the yearly system created discredited the championship title as a whole. [5] The challenger to the current world champion will be the winner of a to be created Candidates tournament.

Women's World Chess Champions

NameYearsCountry
Vera Menchik 19271944 Russia (in exile) /   Czechoslovakia /  United Kingdom
none19441950 World War II
Lyudmila Rudenko 19501953  Soviet Union (Ukrainian SSR)
Elisaveta Bykova 19531956 Soviet Union (Russian SFSR)
Olga Rubtsova 19561958 Soviet Union (Russian SFSR)
Elisaveta Bykova 19581962 Soviet Union (Russian SFSR)
Nona Gaprindashvili 19621978 Soviet Union (Georgian SSR)
Maia Chiburdanidze 19781991 Soviet Union (Georgian SSR)
Xie Jun 19911996 China
Susan Polgar 19961999 Hungary
Xie Jun 19992001 China
Zhu Chen 20012004 China
Antoaneta Stefanova 20042006 Bulgaria
Xu Yuhua 20062008 China
Alexandra Kosteniuk 20082010 Russia
Hou Yifan 20102012 China
Anna Ushenina 20122013 Ukraine
Hou Yifan 20132015 China
Mariya Muzychuk 20152016 Ukraine
Hou Yifan 20162017 China
Tan Zhongyi 20172018 China
Ju Wenjun 2018 China

List of Women's World Chess Championships

YearHost countryHost cityWorld championRunner-up(s)Won (+)Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Women's World Chess Championship (1927–1944)
1927  United Kingdom London Vera Menchik 11 players100112-player round-robin tournament
1930   Germany Hamburg Vera Menchik 4 players6115-player double round-robin tournament
1931   Czechoslovakia Prague Vera Menchik 4 players8005-player double round-robin tournament
1933  United Kingdom Folkestone Vera Menchik 7 players14008-player double round-robin tournament
1934  Netherlands Rotterdam Vera Menchik Sonja Graf 3104-game match
1935  Poland Warsaw Vera Menchik 9 players90010-player round-robin tournament
1937  Sweden Stockholm Vera Menchik 25 players140026-player Swiss-system tournament
1937  Austria Semmering Vera Menchik Sonja Graf 92516-game match
1939  Argentina Buenos Aires Vera Menchik 19 players170220-player round-robin tournament
Vera Menchik died in 1944 as reigning world champion.
Women's World Chess Championship (1944–1950)
Interregnum
Women's World Chess Championship (1950–1999)
1950   Soviet Union Moscow Lyudmila Rudenko 15 players11½ points out of 1516-player round-robin tournament
1953  Soviet Union Moscow Elisaveta Bykova Lyudmila Rudenko 75214-game match
1956  Soviet Union Moscow Olga Rubtsova Elisaveta Bykova 10 points out of 163-player (Rubtsova, Bykova, Rudenko) octuple round-robin
1958  Soviet Union Moscow Elisaveta Bykova Olga Rubtsova 74314-game match
1959  Soviet Union Moscow Elisaveta Bykova Kira Zvorykina 62513-game match
1962  Soviet Union Moscow Nona Gaprindashvili Elisaveta Bykova 70411-game match
1965  Soviet Union Riga Nona Gaprindashvili Alla Kushnir 73313-game match
1969  Soviet Union Tbilisi
Moscow
Nona Gaprindashvili Alla Kushnir 62514-game match
1972  Soviet Union Riga Nona Gaprindashvili Alla Kushnir 54716-game match
1975  Soviet Union Pitsunda
Tbilisi
Nona Gaprindashvili Nana Alexandria 83112-game match
1978  Soviet Union Tbilisi Maia Chiburdanidze Nona Gaprindashvili 42915-game match
1981  Soviet Union Borjomi
Tbilisi
Maia Chiburdanidze Nana Alexandria 44816-game match (draw)
1984  Soviet Union Volgograd Maia Chiburdanidze Irina Levitina 52714-game match
1986   Bulgaria Sofia Maia Chiburdanidze Elena Akhmilovskaya 41914-game match
1988  Soviet Union Telavi Maia Chiburdanidze Nana Ioseliani 321116-game match
1991  Philippines Manila Xie Jun Maia Chiburdanidze 42915-game match
1993  Monaco Monaco Xie Jun Nana Ioseliani 71311-game match
1996  Spain Jaén Susan Polgar Xie Jun 62513-game match
1999  Russia
 China
Kazan
Shenyang
Xie Jun Alisa Galliamova 53715-game match
Women's World Chess Championship (2000–present) (addition of the knockout format)
2000  India New Delhi Xie Jun Qin Kanying 10364-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match)
2001  Russia Moscow Zhu Chen Alexandra Kosteniuk 2+32+1064-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, plus tie-breaks)
2004  Russia Elista Antoaneta Stefanova Ekaterina Kovalevskaya 20164-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, won early)
2006  Russia Yekaterinburg Xu Yuhua Alisa Galliamova 20164-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, won early)
2008  Russia Nalchik Alexandra Kosteniuk Hou Yifan 10364-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match)
2010  Turkey Hatay Hou Yifan Ruan Lufei 1+212+264-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, plus tie-breaks)
2011  Albania Tirana Hou Yifan Humpy Koneru 30510-game match, won early
2012  Russia Khanty-Mansiysk Anna Ushenina Antoaneta Stefanova 1+112+164-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, plus tie-breaks)
2013  China Taizhou Hou Yifan Anna Ushenina 40310-game match, won early
2015  Russia Sochi Mariya Muzychuk Natalia Pogonina 10364-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match)
2016  Ukraine Lviv Hou Yifan Mariya Muzychuk 30610-game match, won early
2017  Iran Tehran Tan Zhongyi Anna Muzychuk 1+112+164-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, plus tie-breaks)
May 2018  China Shanghai
Chongqing
Ju Wenjun Tan Zhongyi 32510-game match
Nov 2018  Russia Khanty-Mansiysk Ju Wenjun Kateryna Lagno 1+212+264-player knock-out tournament (4-game championship match, plus tie-breaks)

See also

References

  1. See for instance the discussion in the Dutee Chand decision at the Court of Arbitration for Sport regarding the International Association of Athletics Federations:
  2. FIDE Statute 1.4
  3. FIDE.com; Women's World Chess Championship Regulations
  4. Fide.com; Regulations and Bidding Procedure for the Women's Grand-Prix 2009-2010 ; 30 July 2008; retrieved 24 December 2010
  5. https://ugra2018.fide.com/2018/10/13/a-dvorkovich-format-of-the-women-s-world-championship-cycle-will-be-changed/
  6. FIDE General Assembly Agenda (5.20.8)
  7. http://www.fide.com/index.php?option=com_fidecalendar&view=fidecalendar&ny=2018