Russia–United States relations

Last updated

Russia–United States relations
Russia USA Locator (Crimea disputed).svg
Flag of Russia.svg
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
Diplomatic mission
Russian Embassy, Washington D.C. American Embassy, Moscow
Ambassador Anatoly Antonov Ambassador John J. Sullivan
U.S. President Donald Trump (right), U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Russian President Vladimir Putin (left) meet in Osaka, Japan in June 2019. President Trump at the G20 (48144140002).jpg
U.S. President Donald Trump (right), U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Russian President Vladimir Putin (left) meet in Osaka, Japan in June 2019.
U.S. Vice President Joe Biden with Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in Moscow, Russia on March 10, 2011 Vice President Joe Biden greets Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.jpg
U.S. Vice President Joe Biden with Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in Moscow, Russia on March 10, 2011
Embassy of Russia in the United States. Russian Embassy US.jpg
Embassy of Russia in the United States.
Embassy of the United States in Russia. US embassy new building in Moscow.jpg
Embassy of the United States in Russia.

Russia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the United States and Russia, two of the world's most powerful nations. The United States and Russia maintain diplomatic and trade relations. The relationship was generally warm under the Russian President Boris Yeltsin (1991–99) until the NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [1] [2] in the spring of 1999, and has since deteriorated significantly. In 2014, relations greatly deteriorated further due to the crisis in Ukraine, Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, differences regarding Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, and from the end of 2016 over Russia's alleged interference in the 2016 U.S. elections and the 2020 elections. Mutual sanctions imposed in 2014 remain in place.


Country comparison

Common name Russia United States
Official nameRussian Federation, or Russia [3] United States of America
Coat of arms Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg
Flag Flag of Russia.svg Flag of the United States.svg
Area 17,124,442 km2 (6,612,073 sq mi)
(including the Crimean Peninsula)
9,833,520 km2 (3,796,742 sq mi) [4]
Population 146,512,911336,139,233
Population density 8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi)32.8/km2 (85/sq mi)
Capital Moscow Washington, D.C.
Largest metropolitan area Moscow (~12.6 million) New York City (~8.4 million)
Government Federal semi-presidential republic Federal presidential republic
First leader Rurik (prince)
Boris Yeltsin (president)
George Washington
Current leader Vladimir Putin Joe Biden
Established862 (Ancient Rus')
12 December 1991 (Russian Federation)
12 December 1993 (current constitution)
4 July 1776 (independence declared)
3 September 1783 (independence recognized)
21 June 1788 (current constitution)
Official languages Russian None at the federal level (English de facto)
Currency Russian ruble United States dollar
List of countries by GDP (nominal) $1.637 trillion [5] $21.439 trillion [6]
External debt (nominal)$539.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) [7] $20 trillion (March 2019) [8]
GDP (PPP) $4.349 trillion [5] $21.439 trillion [6]
GDP (nominal) per capita $11,162 [5] $65,111 [6]
GDP (PPP) per capita $29,267 [5] $65,111 [6]
Human Development Index 0.824 (very high)0.920 (very high)
Expatriates 30,000 Americans living in Russia[ citation needed ]~3,163,084 Russian Americans
Foreign exchange reserves $558,900 (17 January 2020) [9] $128,883 (25 October 2019) [10]
Military expenditures $61.4 billion$649 billion
Army size Russian Army (2020) [11]
  • 12,950 Tanks
  • 27,038 Armored Vehicles
  • 6,083 Self-Propelled Artillery
  • 4,465 Towed Artillery
  • 3,860 Rocket Projectors
US Army (2020) [12]
  • 6,289 Tanks
  • 39,253 Armored Vehicles
  • 1,465 Self-Propelled Artillery
  • 2,740 Towed Artillery
  • 1,366 Rocket Projectors
Navy size Russian Navy (2020) [11]

Total Naval Strength: 603 ships

  • 1 Aircraft Carriers
  • 16 Destroyers
  • 10 Frigates
  • 79 Corvettes
  • 62 Submarines
  • 41 Patrol
  • 48 Mine Warfare
US Navy (2020) [12]

Total Naval Strength: 481 ships

  • 11 Aircraft Carriers
  • 91 Destroyers
  • 0 Frigates
  • 19 Corvettes
  • 66 Submarines
  • 13 Patrol
  • 11 Mine Warfare
Air Force size Russian Air Force (2020) [11]

Total Aircraft Strength: 4,163

  • 873 Fighters
  • 742 Dedicated Attack
  • 424 Transports
  • 497 Trainers
  • 127 Special-Mission
  • 1,522 Helicopters
  • 531 Attack Helicopters
US Air Force (2020) [12]

Total Aircraft Strength: 13,264

  • 2,085 Fighters
  • 715 Dedicated Attack
  • 945 Transports
  • 2,643 Trainers
  • 742 Special-Mission
  • 5,768 Helicopters
  • 967 Attack Helicopters
Nuclear warheads 6,500 (2019) [13] 6,185 (2019) [13]
Economic alliance BRICS, Eurasian Economic Union Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Military alliance Collective Security Treaty Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Leaders of Russia and the United States from 1992

George H. W. BushBill ClintonGeorge W. BushBarack ObamaDonald TrumpBoris YeltsinVladimir PutinDmitry MedvedevVladimir PutinUnited StatesRussiaRussia-United States relations


Russian Empire–United States relations
Flag of Russia (1914-1917).svg
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg
United States

United States and the Russian Empire

Fort Ross, Russian settlement in California, 1841, by Ilya Gavrilovich Voznesensky. View of Settlement Ross, 1841 (variation).jpg
Fort Ross, Russian settlement in California, 1841, by Ilya Gavrilovich Voznesensky.

Official contacts between the Russian Empire and the new United States of America began in 1776. Russia, while formally neutral during the American Revolution (1765–1783), favored the U.S.

Fully-fledged diplomatic ties were established in 1809. [15] In 1863, during the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Russian Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets wintered in the American ports of New York and San Francisco, respectively. Some historians credit this visit as a major factor in deterring France and the UK from entering the war on the Confederate side. [16] For many years a myth persisted that during the American Civil War, Russia supported the Union against the Confederacy. In fact Russia was strictly neutral. The myth was invented by the American State Department to mislead the British about American potential strength. [17] Russia operated a small fur-trade operations in Alaska, coupled with missionaries to the natives. By 1861 the project lost money, threatened to antagonize the Americans, and could not be defended from Britain. In the Alaska Purchase of 1867 it was sold to the United States for $7.2 million, [18] [19] thereby creating a common sea border between the two countries that still exists today. In the late 19th century, American public opinion was shocked at the accurate reports of anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire (mostly within the Pale of Settlement). It was a factor as late in American opposition to going to war against Germany with Russia as an ally in 1917, until the czar Nicholas II was overthrown in February 1917 and the objection ended. [20] The Treaty of Portsmouth (1905), brokered by American President Theodore Roosevelt ended the Russo-Japanese War. [21]

From 1820 until 1917, about 3.3 million immigrants arrived in the U.S. from the Russian Empire. Most were Jews or Poles; only 100,000 were ethnic Russians. [22] [23]

United States and the Soviet Union

Soviet–American relations
Soviet Union United States Locator.png
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg
Soviet Union
Flag of the United States.svg
United States
U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin in Tehran, Iran in November 1943. Teheran conference-1943.jpg
U.K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin in Tehran, Iran in November 1943.
U.S. Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush with Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev in New York, 1988. President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush meet with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev on Governor's Island New York.jpg
U.S. Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush with Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev in New York, 1988.

The U.S. participated in the allied military intervention against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War since August 1918, operating in the Russian Far East. Following the Bolsheviks′ victory in the Civil War and the establishment of the Soviet Union (USSR) at the end of 1922, the U.S., while developing trade and economic ties, was the last major world power that continued to refuse to formally recognize the Soviet government. [24] The United States and the USSR established diplomatic relations in November 1933. [25]

The United States and the Soviet Union were among the four major Allies against the Axis powers during World War II. Following the onset of the Cold War in 1947, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed by the U.S., Canada, and several Western European nations, in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949, a treaty that established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) designed to provide collective security against the Soviet Union. [26]

The first bilateral treaty between the U.S. and Soviet Russia/USSR was a consular convention signed in Moscow in June 1964. [27] [28] In 1975, the Helsinki Final Act was signed by a multitude of countries, including the USSR and the US, and, while not having a binding legal power of a treaty, it effectively signified the U.S.-led West′s recognition of the Soviet Union′s dominance in Eastern Europe and acceptance of the Soviet annexation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania that had been effected in 1940. The Act came to play a role in subsequently ending the Cold War. [29]

In the 1970s—1980s the USSR and the U.S. signed a series of arms control treaties such as the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972), two Strategic Arms Limitation treaties (SALT), the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1987); in July 1991 the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was concluded.

In the late 1980s, Eastern Europe nations took advantage of the relaxation of Soviet control under Mikhail Gorbachev and began to break away from communist rule. The relationship greatly improved in the final years of the USSR.

On 3 December 1989, Gorbachev and the U.S. president George H. W. Bush declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit. [30]


From dissolution of the Soviet Union through Yeltsin’s terms (1991–99)

On 25 December 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved, and the Commonwealth of Independent States, a loose association of the former USSR's constituent republics (except the Baltic states), was formed. The USSR's Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became an independent state that inherited the USSR's UN Security Council permanent membership and declared itself the successor state to the USSR. Relations between Russia and the U.S. remained generally warm under Russia's president Boris Yeltsin and the U.S. George H. W. Bush′s and then Bill Clinton's administrations in the 1990s. In 1993, the sides signed the START II arms control treaty that was designed to ban the use of multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) on intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs); the treaty was eventually ratified by both countries, yet it was never implemented and was formally abandoned in 2002, following the US′s withdrawal from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin in the White House, October 1995. Boris Yeltsin with Bill Clinton-1.jpg
U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin in the White House, October 1995.

At the end of the 1990s, relations started to fray as Moscow grew suspicious about Washington′s intentions in the light of the first phase of the NATO eastward expansion. [31] Russia stridently opposed the U.S.-led NATO military operation against Serbia and Montenegro over Kosovo that began in late March 1999. [1] [32] [33] In December 1999, while on a visit to China, president Boris Yeltsin verbally assailed U.S. president Bill Clinton for criticizing Russia's tactics in Chechnya (at the start of the Second Chechen War) emphatically reminding that Russia remained a nuclear superpower and adding: ″Things will be as we have agreed with Jiang Zemin. We will be saying how to live, not [Bill Clinton] alone″. [31]

From Putin’s first term through end of George W. Bush’s second term (2000–09)

During the first presidencies of Vladimir Putin, who assumed the top office, first as acting president, on the last day of 1999, and United States President George W. Bush, the United States and Russia began to have serious disagreements. Under Putin, Russia became more assertive in international affairs; under Bush, the U.S. took an increasingly unilateral course in its foreign policy in the wake of the September 11 attacks.

The Russian leadership blamed U.S. officials for encouraging anti-Russian revolts during the Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003 and the Orange Revolution in Ukraine a year later that was seen by the Putin administration as intrusions into Russia's geographic sphere of interest. [34]

Russia strongly opposed the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. Vladimir Putin in Saint Petersburg-56.jpg
Russia strongly opposed the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Vladimir Putin with George W. Bush and other Western leaders at 32nd G8 summit in Moscow, July 2006. 32nd G8 Summit-3.jpg
Vladimir Putin with George W. Bush and other Western leaders at 32nd G8 summit in Moscow, July 2006.

Nevertheless, Putin and Bush were said to have established good personal relations. [35] [36]

In 2002, the United States withdrew from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in order to move forward with plans for a missile defense system. Putin called the decision a mistake. Russia strongly opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, though without exercising its veto in the United Nations Security Council. Russia has regarded the expansion of NATO into the old Eastern Bloc, and U.S. efforts to gain access to Central Asian oil and natural gas as a potentially hostile encroachment on Russia's sphere of influence.

Controversy over U.S. plan to station missiles in Poland (2007-2008)

In March 2007, the U.S. announced plans to build an anti-ballistic missile defense installation in Poland along with a radar station in the Czech Republic. Both nations were former Warsaw Pact members. U.S. officials said that the system was intended to protect the United States and Europe from possible nuclear missile attacks by Iran or North Korea. Russia, however, viewed the new system as a potential threat and, in response, tested a long-range intercontinental ballistic missile, the RS-24, which it claimed could defeat any defense system. Vladimir Putin warned the U.S. that these new tensions could turn Europe into a "powder keg". On June 3, 2007, Putin warned that if the United States built the missile defense system, Russia would consider targeting missiles at Poland and the Czech Republic. [37]

In October 2007, Vladimir Putin visited Iran to discuss Russia's aid to Iran's nuclear power program and "insisted that the use of force was unacceptable." [38] On October 17, Bush stated "if you're interested in avoiding World War III, it seems like you ought to be interested in preventing them from having the knowledge necessary to make a nuclear weapon," understood as a message to Putin. [39] A week later Putin compared U.S. plans to put up a missile defense system near Russia's border as analogous to when the Soviet Union deployed missiles in Cuba, prompting the Cuban Missile Crisis. [40]

In February 2008, Vladimir Putin said Russia might have to retarget some of its missiles towards the missile defense system: "If it appears, we will be forced to respond appropriately – we will have to retarget part of our systems against those missiles." He also said that missiles might be redirected towards Ukraine if they went ahead with plans to build NATO bases within their territory, saying that "We will be compelled to aim our missiles at facilities that we consider a threat to our national security, and I am putting this plainly now so that the blame for this is not shifted later," [41]

In July 2008, Russia announced that if a U.S. anti-missile shield was deployed near the Russian border, it would have to react militarily. The statement from the Russian foreign ministry said, "If an American strategic anti-missile shield starts to be deployed near our borders, we will be forced to react not in a diplomatic fashion but with military-technical means." Later, Russia's ambassador to the United Nations Vitaly Churkin said that "military-technical means" did not mean military action, but more likely a change in Russia's strategic posture, perhaps by redeploying its own missiles. [42]

On August 14, 2008, the U.S. and Poland agreed to have 10 two-stage missile interceptors – made by Orbital Sciences Corporation – placed in Poland, as part of a missile shield to defend Europe and the U.S. from a possible missile attack by Iran. In return, the U.S. agreed to move a battery of MIM-104 Patriot missiles to Poland. The missile battery was to be staffed – at least temporarily – by U.S. Military personnel. The U.S. also pledged to defend Poland, a NATO member, quicker than NATO would in the event of an attack. Additionally, the Czech Republic recently agreed to allow the placement of a radar-tracking station in their country, despite public opinion polls showing that the majority of Czechs were against the plans and only 18% supported it. [43] The radar-tracking station in the Czech Republic would also be part of the missile defense shield. After the agreement was announced, Russian officials said defences on Russia's borders would be increased and that they foresaw harm in bilateral relations with the United States. [44]

In November 2008, a day after Obama was elected president, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev in his first annual address to the Federal Assembly of Russia announced plans to deploy Iskander short-range missiles to Kaliningrad, near the border with Poland, if the United States went ahead with its European Ballistic Missile Defense System. [45] [46]

Russian-Georgian clash (August, 2008)

In August 2008, United States-Russia bilateral relations became further strained, when Russia and Georgia fought a five-day war over the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

From Obama’s first term to election of Trump (2009–16)

"Reset" under Obama and Medvedev (2009–11)

U.S. president Barack Obama and Russian president Dmitry Medvedev after signing the New START treaty Obama and Medvedev sign Prague Treaty 2010.jpeg
U.S. president Barack Obama and Russian president Dmitry Medvedev after signing the New START treaty

Despite U.S.–Russia relations becoming strained during the Bush administration, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev (president from May 2008 until May 2012, with Vladimir Putin as head of government) and U.S. president Barack Obama struck a warm tone at the 2009 G20 summit in London and released a joint statement that promised a "fresh start" in Russia–United States relations. The statement also called on Iran to abandon its nuclear program and to permit foreign inspectors into the country. [47]

In March 2009, U.S. secretary of state Hillary Clinton and her Russian counterpart Sergey Lavrov symbolically pressed a "reset" button. The gag fell short as the Russian translation on the button was misspelt by the State Department and actually meant "overload" instead of "reset". After making a few jokes, they decided to press the button anyway. [48]

In early July 2009, Obama visited Moscow where he had meetings with president Medvedev and prime minister Putin. Speaking at the New Economic School Obama told a large gathering, "America wants a strong, peaceful and prosperous Russia. This belief is rooted in our respect for the Russian people, and a shared history between our nations that goes beyond competition." [49] Days after president Obama's visit to Moscow, U.S. vice president Joe Biden, noting that the U.S. was "vastly underestimat[ing] the hand that [it] h[e]ld", told a U.S. newspaper that Russia, with its population base shrinking and the economy "withering", would have to make accommodations to the West on a wide range of national-security issues. [50] Biden's words, published shortly after his visit to Ukraine and Georgia, were interpreted by George Friedman of Stratfor as "reaffirm[ing] the U.S. commitment to the principle that Russia does not have the right to a sphere of influence in these countries or anywhere in the former Soviet Union"; [51] Friedman pointed up a fundamental error in the analysis that underlay such thinking and predicted, "We suspect the Russians will squeeze back hard before they move off the stage of history". [51]

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov at the Waldorf Astoria New York in September 2010 Lavrov and Clinton in NYC-1.jpg
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov at the Waldorf Astoria New York in September 2010

In March 2010, the United States and Russia reached an agreement to reduce their stockpiles of nuclear weapons. The new nuclear arms reduction treaty (called New START) was signed by President Obama and President Medvedev on April 8, 2010. The agreement cut the number of long-range nuclear weapons held by each side to about 1,500, down from the current 1,700 to 2,200 set by the Moscow Treaty of 2002. The New START replaced the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, which expired in December 2009. [52]

On a visit to Moscow in March 2011, U.S. vice president Joe Biden reiterated Washington's support for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization; [53] he also had a meeting with Russia's leading human rights and opposition leaders where he reportedly told the gathering at the U.S. ambassador's Spaso House residence that it would be better for Russia if Putin did not run for re-election in 2012. [54] Through 2020, this was the only time Biden and Putin had met. After an official group meeting Biden characterized in his memoir as "argumentative," he and Putin met privately, with Biden saying "Mr. Prime Minister, I’m looking into your eyes," (a reference to a 2001 meeting between Putin and President Bush, who later said "I looked the man in the eye...I was able to get a sense of his soul"). Biden continued, "I don’t think you have a soul." Putin replied, "We understand each other." Biden was elected president in 2020. [55]

U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev and Italy's Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi meeting in Italy in June 2011 Biden, berlusconi and medvedev.jpeg
U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev and Italy's Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi meeting in Italy in June 2011

At the start of the mass protests that began in Russia after the legislative election in early December 2011, prime minister Vladimir Putin accused the United States of interference and inciting unrest, specifically saying that secretary of state Hillary Clinton had sent "a signal" to "some actors in our country"; his comments were seen as indication of a breakdown in the Obama administration's effort to "reset" the relationship. [56]

By 2012, it was clear that a genuine reset never happened and relations remained sour. Factors in the West included traditional mistrust and fear, an increasing drift away from democracy by Russia, and a demand in Eastern Europe for closer political, economic and military integration with the West. From Russia factors included a move away from democracy by Putin, expectations of regaining superpower status and the tactic of manipulating trade policies and encouraging divisions within NATO. [57] [58]

Start of Putin's third term. Obama's Syria "red line" (2012–2015)

Shortly after the election of Putin back to presidency in March 2012, the White House spokesman Jay Carney said United States–Russian cooperation was based on mutual interests. [59]

In mid-September 2013, the United States and Russia made a deal whereby Syria's chemical weapons would be placed under international control and eventually destroyed; president Obama welcomed the agreement [60] that was shortly after enshrined in the UNSC Resolution 2118. The Obama administration was criticised for having used the chemical weapons deal as an ineffectual substitute for military action that Obama had promised in the event of use of chemical weapons by the Syrian government. [61] In George Robertson's view, as well as many others', the failure of Obama to follow through on his 2013 "red line" and take promised military action badly hurt his credibility and that of the United States with Putin and other world leaders. [62] [63]

Obama acknowledged Russia's role in securing the deal to limit Iran's nuclear program that was reached in July 2015, and personally thanked Putin for Russia's role in the relevant negotiations. [64]

On a personal level, the relationship between Obama and Putin went on to be characterised by an observer in 2015 the following way: "There can rarely have been two world leaders so obviously physically uncomfortable in one another's presence." [65]

Increased tension: Overview (2012–15)

In May 2012, Russian general Nikolay Yegorovich Makarov said that there was a possibility of a preemptive strike on missile defense sites in Eastern Europe, to apply pressure to the United States regarding Russia's demands. [66] In July 2012, two Tu-95 Bears were intercepted by NORAD fighters in the air defense zone off the U.S. coast of Alaska, where they may have been practicing the targeting of Fort Greely and Vandenberg Air Force Base. [67] Later in August 2012, it was revealed that an Akula-class submarine had conducted a patrol within the Gulf of Mexico without being detected, raising alarms of the U.S. Navy's anti-submarine warfare capabilities. [68] [69]

On December 14, 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama signed the Magnitsky Act, which "[imposed] U.S. travel and financial restrictions on human rights abusers in Russia". On December 28, 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a bill, widely seen as retaliatory, that banned any United States citizen from adopting children from Russia. [70]

On February 12, 2013, hours before the 2013 State of the Union Address by U.S. president Obama, two Russian Tu-95 Bear strategic bombers, reportedly equipped with nuclear-tipped cruise missiles, circled the U.S. territory of Guam. [71] [72] Air Force F-15 jets based on Andersen Air Force Base were scrambled to intercept the aircraft. [71] [72] The Russian aircraft reportedly "were intercepted and left the area in a northbound direction." [71] [72]

At the end of 2013, Russia announced that a rearmament of the Kozelsk, Novosibirsk, Tagil Rocket divisions with advanced RS-24 Yars intercontinental ballistic missiles was going ahead. [73]

In July 2014, the U.S. government formally accused Russia of having violated the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty by testing a prohibited medium-range ground-launched cruise missile (presumably R-500, [74] a modification of Iskander) [75] and threatened to retaliate accordingly. [75] [76] Concern in the U.S. was also caused by the test-firing in 2014 of the Russian RS-26 Rubezh Intercontinental Ballistic Missile capable of evading the existing anti-ballistic missile defenses. [77] [78]

In early June 2015, the U.S. State Department reported that Russia had failed to correct the violation of the I.N.F. Treaty; the U.S. government was said to have made no discernible headway in making Russia so much as acknowledge the compliance problem. [79]

Edward Snowden affair (2013–present)

Snowden in Moscow in October 2013. Edward Snowden 2013-10-9 (2).jpg
Snowden in Moscow in October 2013.

Edward Snowden, a contractor for the United States government, copied and released hundreds of thousands of pages of secret U.S. government documents. He fled to Hong Kong, and then to Russia where in July 2013 he was granted political asylum. He was wanted on a criminal warrant by U.S. prosecutors for theft of government property and espionage. [80]

The granting of asylum further aggravated relations between the two countries and led to the cancellation of a meeting between Obama and Putin that was scheduled for early September 2013 in Moscow. [81] Snowden remains in Russia as of November 2020.

Ukraine crisis, sanctions (2014–present)

Following the collapse of the Viktor Yanukovych government in Ukraine in February 2014, Russia annexed Crimea on the basis of a controversial referendum held on March 16, 2014. The U.S. had submitted a UN Security Council resolution declaring the referendum illegal; it was vetoed by Russia on March 15 with China abstaining and the other 13 Security Council members voting for the resolution. [82] In 2016, in a court in Moscow, former top Ukrainian officials of the Yanukovich administration testified that the collapse of the government was, in their opinion, a coup d'état organized and sponsored by the U.S. government. [83] [84] Russian newspaper Kommersant alleges George Friedman (chairman of Stratfor) had agreed this was the "most blatant coup in history', which George Friedman says was taken out of context. [85] [86]

Anti-American slogans during the Victory Day celebration, pro-Russia sympathizers and separatists in Donetsk, May 9, 2014. 2014-05-09. Den' Pobedy v Donetske 237.jpg
Anti-American slogans during the Victory Day celebration, pro-Russia sympathizers and separatists in Donetsk, May 9, 2014.

U.S. secretary of state John Kerry in early March 2014 answering the press questions about Russia's moves in Crimea said, "This is an act of aggression that is completely trumped up in terms of its pretext. It's really 19th century behavior in the 21st century, and there is no way, to start with, that if Russia persists in this, that the G8 countries are going to assemble in Sochi. That's a starter." [63] On March 24, 2014, the U.S. and its allies in the G8 political forum suspended Russia's membership thereof. [87] The decision was dismissed by Russia as inconsequential. [88] [89]

At the end of March 2014, U.S. president Obama ruled out any Western military intervention in Ukraine [88] and admitted that Russia's annexation of Crimea would be hard to reverse; however, he dismissed Russia as a "regional power" that did not pose a major security threat to the U.S. [90] In January 2016, when asked for his opinion of Obama's statement, Putin said, "I think that speculations about other countries, an attempt to speak disrespectfully about other countries is an attempt to prove one's exceptionalism by contrast. In my view, that is a misguided position." [91] [92] In November 2016, the president of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker said this of the statement of Obama: "We have a lot to learn about the depths of Russia, we are very ignorant about it at the moment. I would like to have discussions on a level footing with Russia. Russia is not, as President Obama said, 'a regional power'. This was a big error in assessment." [93]

As unrest spread into eastern Ukraine in the spring of 2014, relations between the U.S. and Russia further worsened. The U.S. government imposed punitive sanctions for Russia's activity in Ukraine. After one bout of sanctions announced by President Obama in July 2014 targeting Russia's major energy, financial and defence companies, Russia said the sanctions would seriously harm the bilateral ties relegating them to the 1980s Cold War era. [94]

Putin meets with Secretary of State John Kerry, Victoria Nuland and John F. Tefft to discuss Ukraine and other issues in December 2015. Vladimir Putin and John Kerry (2015-12-15) 02.jpg
Putin meets with Secretary of State John Kerry, Victoria Nuland and John F. Tefft to discuss Ukraine and other issues in December 2015.

From March 2014 to 2016, six rounds of sanctions were imposed by the US, as well as by the EU, and some other countries allied to the U.S. The first three rounds targeted individuals close to Putin by freezing their assets and denying leave to enter. Russia responded by banning import of certain food products as well as by banning entry for certain government officials from the countries that imposed sanctions against Russia.

The end of 2014 saw the passage by the US of the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014, [95] [96] aimed at depriving certain Russian state firms of Western financing and technology while also providing $350 million in arms and military equipment to Ukraine, and the imposition by the US president's executive order of yet another round of sanctions. [97]

Due to the situation concerning Ukraine, relations between Russia and the U.S. that denounced Russia's actions were in 2014 said to be at their worst since the end of the Cold War. [98]

As vice president, Joe Biden urged the Ukrainian government to reduce the nation's reliance on imports of Russian natural gas, and to eliminate pro-Russia middlemen such as Dmitry Firtash from the country's natural gas industry. [99]

Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War (from September 30, 2015)

Barack Obama meets with Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria, September 29, 2015. Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama (2015-09-29) 04.jpg
Barack Obama meets with Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria, September 29, 2015.

Shortly after the start of the Syrian Civil War in the spring of 2011, the U.S. imposed sanctions on Syria's government and urged president Bashar al-Assad to resign; meanwhile, Russia, a long-standing ally of Syria, continued and increased its support for the Syrian government against rebels backed up by the U.S. and its regional allies.

On September 30, 2015, Russia began the air campaign in Syria on the side of the Syrian government headed by president Bashar al-Assad of Syria. According to Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov's statement made in mid-October 2015, Russia had invited the U.S. to join the Baghdad-based information center set up by Iran, Iraq, Syria and Russia to coordinate their military efforts, but received what he called an "unconstructive" response; Putin's proposal that the U.S. receive a high-level Russian delegation and that a U.S. delegation arrive in Moscow to discuss co-operation in Syria was likewise declined by the U.S. [100] [101]

In early October 2015, U.S. president Obama called the way Russia was conducting its military campaign in Syria a "recipe for disaster"; [102] top U.S. military officials ruled out military cooperation with Russia in Syria. [103] [104] Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter and other senior U.S. officials said Russia's campaign was primarily aimed at propping up Assad, whom U.S. president Barack Obama had repeatedly called upon to leave power. [105]

Three weeks into the Russian campaign in Syria, on October 20, 2015, Russian president Vladimir Putin met Bashar Assad in Moscow to discuss their joint military campaign and a future political settlement in Syria, according to the Kremlin report of the event. [106] [107] The meeting provoked a sharp condemnation from the White House. [108]

While one of the original aims of the Russian leadership may have been normalisation of the relationship with the U.S. and the West at large, the resultant situation in Syria was said in October 2015 to be a proxy war between Russia and the U.S. [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] The two rounds of the Syria peace talks held in Vienna in October and November 2015, with Iran participating for the first time, highlighted yet again the deep disagreement over the Syrian settlement between the U.S. and Russia, primarily on the issue of Bashar Assad's political future. [114] The talks in Vienna were followed by a bilateral meeting of Obama and Putin on the sidelines of the G-20 Summit in Turkey, during which a certain consensus between the two leaders on Syria was reported to have been reached. [115]

John Kerry and Sergey Lavrov are paying tribute at the French Embassy in Moscow after terror attack in Nice, July 15, 2016. Secretary Kerry Looks on as Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov Signs a Condolence Book in Moscow (27710004614).jpg
John Kerry and Sergey Lavrov are paying tribute at the French Embassy in Moscow after terror attack in Nice, July 15, 2016.

Bilateral negotiations over Syria were unilaterally suspended by the U.S on October 3, 2016, which was presented as the U.S. government's reaction to a re-newed offensive on Aleppo by Syrian and Russian troops. [116] On the same day Putin signed a decree [117] that suspended the 2000 Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement with the U.S. (the relevant law was signed on 31 October 2016 [118] ), citing the failure by the U.S. to comply with the provisions thereof as well as the U.S.' unfriendly actions that posed a "threat to strategic stability." [119] [120] In mid-October 2016, Russia's U.N. ambassador Vitaly Churkin, referring to the international situation during the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, said that tensions with the U.S. are "probably the worst since 1973". [121] After two rounds of fruitless talks on Syria in Lausanne and London, the foreign ministers of the U.S. and the UK said that additional sanctions against both Russia and Syria were imminent unless Russia and the "Assad regime" stopped their air campaign in Aleppo. [122] [123]

U.S. election of 2016

The U.S. presidential election campaign of 2016 saw the U.S. security officials accuse the Russian government of being behind massive cyber-hackings and leaks that aimed at influencing the election and discrediting the U.S. political system. [124] The allegations were dismissed by Putin who said the idea that Russia was favouring Donald Trump was a myth created by the Hillary Clinton campaign. [124] The background of tense relationship between Putin and Hillary Clinton was highlighted by U.S. press during the election campaign. [125] Trump had been widely seen as a pro-Russia candidate, with the FBI investigating alleged connections between Donald Trump's former campaign manager Paul Manafort as well as Carter Page and pro-Russian interests.

Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and William Shepherd after Shepherd was awarded the Russian Medal "For Merit in Space Exploration", December 2, 2016. William Shepherd Awarded Russian Medal for Merit in Space Exploration.jpg
Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and William Shepherd after Shepherd was awarded the Russian Medal "For Merit in Space Exploration", December 2, 2016.

Between the 2016 election and Trump's inauguration (November 8, 2016–January 20, 2017)

Anti-Trump poster in San Francisco, presumably associating Trump with Russia or its former status as a part of the Soviet Union, April 15, 2017. Tax March SF (34074705055).jpg
Anti-Trump poster in San Francisco, presumably associating Trump with Russia or its former status as a part of the Soviet Union, April 15, 2017.

In mid-November 2016, shortly after the election of Trump as the U.S. president, the Kremlin accused president Barack Obama's administration of trying to damage the U.S.' relationship with Russia to a degree that would render normalization thereof impossible for Trump's incoming administration. [126]

In his address to the Russian parliament delivered on December 1, 2016, Russian president Putin said this of U.S.—Russia relations: "We are prepared to cooperate with the new American administration. It's important to normalize and begin to develop bilateral relations on an equal and mutually beneficial basis. Mutual efforts by Russia and the United States in solving global and regional problems are in the interest of the entire world." [127]

In early December 2016, the White House said that President Obama had ordered the intelligence agencies to review evidence of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential campaign; Eric Schultz, the deputy White House press secretary, denied the review to be led by Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper was meant to be "an effort to challenge the outcome of the election". [128] Simultaneously, the U.S. press published reports, with reference to senior administration officials, that U.S. intelligence agencies, specifically the CIA, [129] had concluded with "high confidence" that Russia acted covertly in the latter stages of the presidential campaign to harm Hillary Clinton's chances and promote Donald Trump. [130] President-elect Donald Trump rejected the CIA assessment that Russia was behind the hackers' efforts to sway the campaign in his favour as "ridiculous". [131] [132]

In mid-December 2016, Hillary Clinton suggested that Putin had a personal grudge against her due to her criticism of the 2011 Russian legislative election and his opinion that she was responsible for fomenting the anti-Putin protests in Russia that began in December 2011. [133] She partially attributed her loss in the 2016 election to Russian meddling organized by Putin. [134] [135]

Also in mid-December, President Obama publicly pledged to retaliate for Russian cyberattacks during the U.S. presidential election in order to "send a clear message to Russia" as both a punishment and a deterrent,; [136] however, the press reported that his actionable options were limited, with many of those having been rejected as either ineffective or too risky; The New York Times , citing a catalogue of U.S.-engineered coups in foreign countries, opined, "There is not much new in tampering with elections, except for the technical sophistication of the tools. For all the outrage voiced by Democrats and Republicans in the past week about the Russian action — with the notable exception of Mr. Trump, who has dismissed the intelligence findings as politically motivated — it is worth remembering that trying to manipulate elections is a well-honed American art form." [137]

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 signed into law by president Obama on 23 December 2016, was criticised by the Russian foreign ministry as yet another attempt to "create problems for the incoming Trump administration and complicate its relations on the international stage, as well as to force it to adopt an anti-Russia policy." [138]

At the end of 2016, U.S. president-elect Donald Trump praised Putin for not expelling U.S. diplomats in response to Washington's expulsion of 35 Russian diplomats as well as other punitive measures taken by the Obama administration in retaliation for what U.S. officials had characterized as interference in the U.S. presidential election. [139] [140]

On January 6, 2017, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), in an assessment of “Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections”, asserted that Russian leadership favored presidential candidate Trump over Clinton, and that Putin personally ordered an "influence campaign" to harm Clinton's chances and "undermine public faith in the US democratic process". [141] :7

During the Trump administration (January 20, 2017–January 20, 2021)


Secretary of State Rex Tillerson with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in Moscow, Russia, April 12, 2017. Secretary Tillerson Listens as AP's Josh Lederman Asks a Question at a Joint Press Conference With Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov (33156239434).jpg
Secretary of State Rex Tillerson with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in Moscow, Russia, April 12, 2017.

A week after the inauguration of Donald Trump on January 20, 2017, the U.S. president Donald Trump had a 50-minute telephone conversation with Russian president Vladimir Putin that was hailed by both governments as a step towards improvement of relations between the U.S. and Russia; the presidents agreed to arrange a face-to-face meeting for a later date. [142] [143]

In early March 2017, the U.S. military for the first time publicly accused Russia of having deployed a land-based cruise missile (SSC-8 [144] ) that they said violated the "spirit and intent" of the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty and posed a threat to NATO. [145]

On March 25, 2017, the U.S. imposed new sanctions against eight Russian companies in connection with the Iran, North Korea, Syria Nonproliferation Act (INKSNA).[ citation needed ]

The cruise-missile strikes on the Syrian Shayrat Airbase, conducted by the U.S. on 7 April 2017 as a response to the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack, [146] [147] [148] were condemned by Russia as an "act of aggression" that was based on a "trumped-up pretext", which substantially impaired Russia–United States relations. [149] Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev said the attack had placed the U.S. on the cusp of warfare with Russia. [150] [151] [152] Both Donald Trump in April and the Russian government in May characterised the relationship between the countries as frozen and lacking any progress; [153] [154] in early June, Vladimir Putin said relations were at an all-time low since the end of the Cold War. [155] In mid-June 2017, the Russian foreign ministry confirmed that, for the first time ever, Russia had failed to receive a formal greeting from the U.S. government on occasion of Russia's national day celebrated on 12 June. [156] [157] [158] [159]

U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in Washington, D.C., May 10, 2017. Secretary Tillerson and Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov Address Reporters Before Their Meeting in Washington (34411963832).jpg
U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in Washington, D.C., May 10, 2017.

In April 2017, Trump's administration denied a request from ExxonMobil to allow it to resume oil drilling in Russia. [160] In July 2017, ExxonMobil filed a lawsuit against the U.S. government challenging the finding that the company violated sanctions imposed on Russia. [161]

On May 10, 2017, Trump had an unannounced meeting in the Oval Office with Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Russian Ambassador to the United States Sergey Kislyak. [162] During the meeting he disclosed highly classified information, providing details that could have been used to deduce the source of the information and the manner in which it was collected, according to current and former government officials. [163] [164] Although the disclosure was not illegal, it was widely criticized because of the possible danger to the source. [165] [166]

On July 6, 2017, during a speech in Warsaw, Poland, Trump urged Russia to cease its support for "hostile regimes" in Syria and Iran. [167] On July 7, 2017, in what appeared to be a sign of good relations between the leaders of both countries, [168] Trump met with Putin at the G20 Hamburg summit in Germany and described the meeting as "an honour." [169]

In mid-July 2017, the Russian foreign ministry noted that the staff of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, following expulsion of diplomats by the Obama administration in December 2016, far exceeded the number of Russian embassy employees in Washington and indicated that the Russian government was considering retaliatory expulsion of more than thirty-five U.S. diplomats, thus evening out the number of the countries' diplomats posted. [170] On July 28, Russia announced punitive measures that were cast as Russia's response to the additional, codified, sanctions against Moscow passed by Congress days prior, but also referenced the specific measures imposed against the Russian diplomatic mission in the U.S. by the Obama administration. [171] Russia demanded that the U.S. reduce its diplomatic and technical personnel in the Moscow embassy and its consulates in St Petersburg, Ekaterinburg and Vladivostok to four hundred fifty-five persons — the same as the number of Russian diplomats posted in the U.S. — by September 1; Russia’s government would also suspend the use of a retreat compound and a storage facility in Moscow used by the U.S. by August 1. [171] [172] [173] Two days later, Vladimir Putin said that the decision on the curtailment of the U.S. diplomatic mission personnel had been taken by him personally and that 755 staff must terminate their work in Russia. [174] [175] [176] After the sanction bill was on August 2 signed by Donald Trump, Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev wrote that the law had ended hope for improving U.S.–Russia relations and meant "an all-out trade war with Russia." [177] [178] The law was also criticised by Donald Trump, whose signing statement indicated that he might choose not to enforce certain provisions of the legislation that he deemed unconstitutional. [179] [180]

Russia protested on September 2, 2017, against a search it said U.S. officials were planning of a Russian trade mission building in Washington D.C., shortly after the U.S., ″in the spirit of parity invoked by the Russians″, demanded that Russia shut two of its diplomatic annexes (buildings) in Washington D.C. and New York City as well as its Consulate General in San Francisco. [181] The Russian foreign ministry said the inspection would be "illegal" and an "unprecedented aggressive action"; it also demanded that the U.S. ″immediately return the Russian diplomatic facilities″. [182] [183]

In November 2017 Trump and Putin both attended the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting in Danang. Although they had no formal meeting they spoke informally several times during the event. [184]

At the end of 2017, CNN concluded that a series of steps undertaken by the Trump administration within a mere week before Christmas such as naming Russia a "rival power" and ″revisionist power″ (along with China), imposing sanctions on Ramzan Kadyrov, a close Putin ally, the decision to provide Ukraine with anti-tank weapons, coupled with tougher line from the State Department about Moscow's activities in eastern Ukraine, and accusations from the Pentagon that Russia was intentionally violating de-confliction agreements in Syria, highlighted "a decided turn away from the warmer, more cooperative relationship with Russia that President Donald Trump called for during his campaign and early in his presidency". [185] [186] [187] In February 2018, echoing Donald Trump's own statement, White House press secretary Sarah Sanders said: "[President Donald Trump] has been tougher on Russia in the first year than Obama was in eight years combined." [188] [189]


Large nuclear weapons stockpile with global range (dark blue), smaller stockpile with global range (medium blue). World nuclear weapons.png
Large nuclear weapons stockpile with global range (dark blue), smaller stockpile with global range (medium blue).

A highly unusual [190] unannounced visit to Washington D.C. at the end of January 2018 by the directors of Russia's three main intelligence and security agencies (FSB, SVR, and GRU), two of whom (Sergey Naryshkin and Igor Korobov) were on the U.S. sanctions list, [191] and their reported meetings with top U.S. security officials caused political controversy in the U.S. and elicited no official comment in Russia, while it occurred days before the Trump administration chose not to impose immediately new sanctions on Russia at the deadline mandated by the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act. [192] [193] [194] [195]

The U.S. air and artillery strike on a pro-government formation in eastern Syria on 7 February 2018, which caused massive death toll among Russian nationals and a political scandal in Russia, was billed by media as "the first deadly clash between citizens of Russia and the United States since the Cold War" and "an episode that threatens to deepen tensions with Moscow". [196] [197]

Public statements read out by Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018, days before the presidential election, about missile technology breakthroughs made by Russia, were referred to by the Trump administration officials as largely boastful untruths, as well as confirmation that "Russia ha[d] been developing destabilizing weapons systems for over a decade, in direct violation of its treaty obligations". [198] U.S. Defense Secretary James Mattis remarked that the systems Putin had talked about "[were] still years away" and he did not see them changing the military balance. [199] Nevertheless, White House insiders were later quoted as saying that Putin′s claims "really got under the president [Trump]'s skin" and caused Trump to take a sharper tone behind the scenes vis-à-vis Vladimir Putin. [200]

On 26 March 2018, following the United States National Security Council's recommendation, [201] to demonstrate the U.S.'s support for the UK's position on the Salisbury poisoning incident, president Donald Trump ordered the expulsion of sixty Russian diplomats and closure of Russian consulate in Seattle. [202] [203] Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov responded to the simultaneous expulsion of the total of 140 Russian diplomats by 25 countries by accusing the U.S. government of "blackmailing" other nations. [204] [205]

Talks between U.S. delegation headed by Trump and Russian delegation headed by Vladimir Putin at the summit in Helsinki, July 16, 2018. Vladimir Putin & Donald Trump in Helsinki, 16 July 2018 (4).jpg
Talks between U.S. delegation headed by Trump and Russian delegation headed by Vladimir Putin at the summit in Helsinki, July 16, 2018.

In April 2018, US-Russian relations were further exacerbated by missile strikes against the Syrian government targets following the suspected chemical attack in Douma on 7 April. [206] The countries clashed diplomatically, with Russia′s top military officials threatening to hit U.S. military targets in the event of a massive U.S.-led strike against Syria. [207] [208] [209] [210] In late May, during an interview with RT, Syria′s president Bashar al-Assad said that direct military conflict between the Russian forces and the U.S. forces in Syria had been averted in April "by the wisdom of the Russian leadership" and that the US-led missile attack against Syria would have been far more extensive had it not been for Russia′s intervention. [211] [212]

On June 8, 2018, Trump called for Russia to be readmitted to the G-7, from which it was expelled after the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014. [213]

Trump's public statements during his first formal meeting with Putin in Helsinki on July 16, 2018, drew criticism from the Democratic members of the U.S. Congress and a number of former senior intelligence officials as well as some ranking members of the Republican party for appearing to have sided with Putin rather than accepting the findings of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election issued by the United States Intelligence Community. [214] [215] [216] Republican senator John McCain called the press conference "one of the most disgraceful performances by an American president in memory." [217] The press around the world ran publications that tended to assess the news conference following the presidents′ two-hour meeting as an event at which Trump had "projected weakness". [218]


Businesses involved in Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline from Russia to Germany have been sanctioned by the United States, [219] which has been seeking to sell more of its own liquefied natural gas (LNG) to European states. [220] German Finance Minister Olaf Scholz called the sanctions "a severe intervention in German and European internal affairs", while the EU spokesman criticized "the imposition of sanctions against EU companies conducting legitimate business." [221] Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov also criticized sanctions, saying that U.S. Congress "is literally overwhelmed with the desire to do everything to destroy" the U.S.–Russia relations. [222]


A June 2020 New York Times report, citing unnamed sources, stated that American intelligence officials assessed with medium confidence that Russian military intelligence unit 29155 had supervised a bounty program paying Taliban-linked militants to kill foreign servicemembers, including Americans, in Afghanistan in 2019. [223] [224] The bounty program reportedly resulted in the deaths of "several" U.S. soldiers, [225] but The Pentagon's top leaders said that Russian bounty program has not been corroborated. [226] The Taliban and Russia have both denied that the bounty program exists. [227] President Donald Trump and his aides denied that he was briefed on the intelligence. Director of National Intelligence John Ratcliffe said that Trump had not received a briefing on the bounty program. White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany said the same. [227] Secretary of Defense Mark Esper said that General Kenneth McKenzie, the commander of U.S. Central Command, and General Scott Miller, the top U.S. military commander in Afghanistan, did not think "the reports were credible as they dug into them." [226] McKenzie said that he found no "causative link" between reported bounties to actual U.S. military deaths, but said a lack of proof is "often true in battlefield intelligence." [226]

On July 1, 2020, following media reports of Taliban participation in an alleged Russian bounty program, the U.S. House Armed Services Committee overwhelmingly voted in favor of an amendment to restrict President Trump's ability to withdraw U.S. troops from Afghanistan. [228]

On September 25, 2020, U.S. Air Force B-52 bombers staged a mock attack run on Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave locked between NATO countries. The simulated raid on the Kaliningrad region was a test case of destroying Russian air defense systems located in the region. [229]

Trump viewed as under Putin's influence

President Donald Trump made both pro- and anti-Russia statements regarding Crimea, [230] Syria, [231] Ukraine, [232] North Korea, [233] Venezuela, [234] election meddling, [235] Skripal poisoning, [236] and oil drilling in Russia. [237] There are conspiracy theories concerning the alleged collusion between Donald Trump's campaign team or administration and the Russian government. [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246]

The Steele dossier alleged that the Russians possessed kompromat on Trump which could be used to blackmail him, and that the Kremlin had promised him that the kompromat would not be used as long as he continued his cooperation with them. [247] [248] Trump's actions at the Helsinki summit in 2018 "led many to conclude that Steele's report was more accurate than not.... Trump sided with the Russians over the U.S. intelligence community's assessment that Moscow had waged an all-out attack on the 2016 election,... The joint news conference,.. cemented fears among some that Trump was in Putin's pocket and prompted bipartisan backlash." [249]

At the joint news conference, when asked directly about the subject, Putin denied that he had any kompromat on Trump. Even though Trump was reportedly given a "gift from Putin" the weekend of the pageant, Putin argued "that he did not even know Trump was in Russia for the Miss Universe pageant in 2013 when, according to the Steele dossier, video of Trump was secretly recorded to blackmail him." [250]

In reaction to Trump's actions at the summit, Senator Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) spoke in the Senate:

Millions of Americans will continue to wonder if the only possible explanation for this dangerous and inexplicable behavior is the possibility — the very real possibility — that President Putin holds damaging information over President Trump. [251]

In May 2017, James Clapper, the former Director of National Intelligence, told NBC's Meet the Press that Russians are "almost genetically driven" to act deviously. Director of National Intelligence James Clapper.jpg
In May 2017, James Clapper, the former Director of National Intelligence, told NBC's Meet the Press that Russians are "almost genetically driven" to act deviously.

Several operatives and lawyers in the U.S. intelligence community reacted strongly to Trump's performance at the summit. They described it as "subservien[ce] to Putin" and a "fervent defense of Russia's military and cyber aggression around the world, and its violation of international law in Ukraine" which they saw as "harmful to US interests". They also suggested that he was either a "Russian asset" or a "useful idiot" for Putin, [253] and that he looked like "Putin's puppet". [254] Former Director of National Intelligence James Clapper wondered "if Russians have something on Trump", [255] and former CIA director John O. Brennan, who has accused Trump of "treason", tweeted: "He is wholly in the pocket of Putin." [256]

Former acting CIA director Michael Morell in January 2019 called Trump "an unwitting agent of the Russian federation", and former CIA director Michael V. Hayden said Trump was a "useful fool" who is "manipulated by Moscow". [257] House Speaker Nancy Pelosi questioned Trump's loyalty when she asked him: "[Why do] all roads lead to Putin?" [258]

Ynet, an Israeli online news site, reported on January 12, 2017, that U.S. intelligence had advised Israeli intelligence officers to be cautious about sharing information with the incoming Trump administration until the possibility of Russian influence over Trump, suggested by Steele's report, had been fully investigated. [259]

On July 2, 2020, the Lincoln Project released an ad entitled Fellow Traveler, attacking Trump for his alleged close ties with Russia. The Russian-language ad features communist imagery such as the hammer and sickle, as well as photographs of Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin and Soviet leaders such as Mikhail Gorbachev. [260] [261]

From Biden's inauguration to present (January 20, 2021–present)

In October 2020, former British senior diplomat Nigel Gould-Davies argued that Russia would be a central priority of the future Biden administration as ″no other country threatens a wider range of American interests and values, foreign and domestic[,] nor has any other country been the source of more domestic controversy and contradictory policy over the past four years″. [262]

Following the arrest of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny on January 17, 2021, Jake Sullivan, who was to become President Joe Biden's national security adviser after the January 20 inauguration, wrote, "Mr. Navalny should be immediately released, and the perpetrators of the outrageous attack on his life must be held accountable. The Kremlin's attacks on Mr. Navalny are not just a violation of human rights, but an affront to the Russian people who want their voices heard." [263]

On the day of Joe Biden′s inauguration, Russia urged the new U.S. administration to take a "more constructive" approach in talks over the extension of the 2010 New START treaty, the Russian foreign ministry accusing the Trump administration of "deliberately and intentionally" dismantling international arms control agreements and referring to its "counterproductive and openly aggressive" approach in talks. [264]

Russian and U.S. intelligence operations

Military attaches of foreign embassies visiting the exhibition of remains of U.S. U-2 spy-in-the-sky aircraft destroyed on May 1, 1960 near Sverdlovsk (currently Yekaterinburg). RIAN archive 793499 Exhibition of remains of U.S. U-2 spy-in-the-sky aircraft.jpg
Military attaches of foreign embassies visiting the exhibition of remains of U.S. U-2 spy-in-the-sky aircraft destroyed on May 1, 1960 near Sverdlovsk (currently Yekaterinburg).

Soviet Union's systemic espionage efforts in the U.S. began in the 1920s. [265]

In April 2015, CNN reported that "Russian hackers" had "penetrated sensitive parts of the White House" computers in "recent months." It was said that the FBI, the Secret Service, and other U.S. intelligence agencies categorized the attacks "among the most sophisticated attacks ever launched against U.S. government systems." [266]

In 2017 a cybersecurity specialist working in the Federal Security Service was arrested by Russian authorities on suspicion of passing information to U.S. intelligence. [267]

In June 2019, Russia said that its electrical grid has been under cyber-attack by the United States. The New York Times reported that American hackers from the United States Cyber Command planted malware potentially capable of disrupting the Russian electrical grid. [268]

Mutual perceptions by the countries' populations

President Obama greets attendees at the New Economic School graduation in Gostinny Dvor, Moscow, July 7, 2009 Barack Obama at the New Economic School graduation.jpg
President Obama greets attendees at the New Economic School graduation in Gostinny Dvor, Moscow, July 7, 2009

A poll by the University of Maryland, College Park, released early July 2009 found that only 2 percent of Russians had "a lot of confidence" that U.S. president Barack Obama would do the right thing in world affairs. [269] Russian media has criticized the United States over the past years for pursuing an anti-missile system in Europe, for favoring NATO expansion and for supporting Georgia in its armed conflict with Russia in 2008. [270]

Prior to 2014, the Russian press expressed varying opinions of Russia–United States relations. [271] Russian media treatment of America ranged from doctrinaire [272] and nationalistic [273] to very positive toward the United States and the West. [274] [275] [276] [277] In 2013, 51 percent of Russians had a favorable view of the U.S., down from 57 percent in 2010. [278]

The opinion polls taken by the independent Levada Center in January 2015, [279] showed 81 percent of Russians tended to hold negative views of the U.S., a number that had nearly doubled over the previous 12 months and that was by far the highest negative rating since the center started tracking those views in 1988, as well as surpassing any time since the Stalin era, according to observers. [280] This contrasts with only 7 percent of Russians in April 1990 who said they had bad or somewhat bad attitudes towards the U.S. [281] Likewise, the figures published by Gallup in February 2015 showed a significant rise in anti-Russian sentiment in the U.S.: the proportion of Americans who considered Russia as a "critical military threat" had over the 12 months increased from 32 to 49 percent, and, for the first time in many years, Russia topped the list of America's perceived external enemies, ahead of North Korea, China and Iran, with 18 percent of U.S. residents putting Russia at the top of the list of the "United States' greatest enemy today". [282] Public opinion polls taken by the Pew Research Center showed that favorable U.S. public opinion of Russia was at 22 percent in 2015. The most negative view of Russia was at 19 percent in 2014, and the most positive view at 49 percent in 2010 and 2011. [283] The most negative view of the United States was at 15 percent in 2015, while the most positive view was at 61 percent in 2002. [284]

US public opinion regarding Russia has changed substantially over the past 25 years. A Gallup poll from 1992 to 2017 shows 62% of American respondents having a favorable view of Russia in 1992, and 29% having an unfavorable view. In 2017, 70% of American respondents had an unfavorable view of Russia, and 28% had a favorable view. [285] A poll conducted by YouGov in 2015 found that only 11% of Americans believed that the Soviet Union contributed most to the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II. [286]

A 2017 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed 41% of Russians had a positive view of the US, only one of two countries surveyed where positive perception for the US increased; 52% expressed a negative view. [287] The same study also showed 53% of Russians had confidence in the U.S. president Donald Trump, compared to just 11% for former president Barack Obama. [288]

American metal band Fear Factory in Saint Petersburg. Fear Factory in Saint Petersburg 2013-7.jpg
American metal band Fear Factory in Saint Petersburg.

There has also been a change in whether the Americans views Russia as an ally or a threat. In 1992, 44% of American respondents saw Russia to be friendly but not an ally, and 5% see them as a threat. In 2014, the Gallup poll reports that 21% of Americans see Russia as friendly but not an ally, and 24% of American respondents seeing them as a threat. [285] This difference in how Americans view Russia has been attributed to the increasing lack of cooperation in the scientific field between the US and Russia, by some. [289] Another perspective is the shift from ally to threat is due to the US being critical of Russia's aggression, especially with their aggression towards geographic neighbors, [290] the United States being one of those neighbors, as it shares a common sea border with the Russian Federation and the US State of Alaska.

The 2016 surveys independently conducted by the Chicago Council and Russia′s Levada Center showed that mutual perceptions between Russians and Americans were at levels not seen since the Cold War, indicating considerable mutual distrust. [291]  

U.S.–Russian relations have further deteriorated since 2016. [292] A December 2017 survey conducted by the Chicago Council and its Russian partner, the Levada Center, showed that:

Seventy-eight percent of Russians polled said the United States meddles “a great deal” or “a fair amount” in Russian politics, compared to 69 percent of Americans who say the same about Russian interference in U.S. politics. ... The poll found that 31 percent of Russians said Moscow tried to influence U.S. domestic affairs in a significant way, compared to 55 percent of Americans who felt that their own government tried to do the same thing in Russia. ... Only 31 percent of Americans say they hold a positive view of Russia, and 24 percent of Russians say the same of the United States. ... Eighty-one percent of Russians said they felt the United States was working to undermine Russia on the world stage; 77 percent of Americans said the same of Russia. [293]

A Levada poll released in August 2018 found that 68% of Russian respondents believe that Russia needs to dramatically improve relations with the United States and other Western countries. [294] According to The Moscow Times, "Russians increasingly view the United States in a positive light following a presidential" summit in Helsinki in July 2018. "For the first time since 2014, the number of Russians who said they had “positive” feelings towards the United States (42 percent) outweighed those who reported “negative” feelings (40 percent)." [295]

The 2019 poll independently conducted by the Chicago Council and Levada Center found that 85% of Russians and 78% of Americans say the United States and Russia are "more rivals than partners." [296] The president of the Center for Citizen Initiatives, Sharon Tennison, stated in 2019, "In my 35 years of traveling throughout Russia, I’ve never before witnessed such a vast gap between what average Americans ‘believe’ about Russia and Russia’s reality on ground today." [296]

A Levada poll released in February 2020 found that 80% of Russian respondents believe that Russia and the West should become friends and partners. [297] However, only 42% of Russians polled said they had a positive view of the United States. [297] Only 18% of Americans polled by Pew Research Center said they had a positive view of Russia. [298] According to the Pew Research Center, "57% of Russians ages 18 to 29 see the U.S. favorably, compared with only 15% of Russians ages 50 and older." [299] In 2019, only 20% of Russians viewed U.S. President Donald Trump positively. [300] Only 14% of Russians expressed net approval of Donald Trump’s policies. [301]


Timeline of relations between the United States and Russia

The timeline covers key events, 1991 to present. [309] [310]

Yeltsin era, 1991–99

Vladimir Putin and wife Lyudmila at service for victims of the September 11 attacks, November 16, 2001. Vladimir Putin in the United States 13-16 November 2001-55.jpg
Vladimir Putin and wife Lyudmila at service for victims of the September 11 attacks, November 16, 2001.

Putin era, 2000 to present

Putin and Obama shake hands at G8 summit, June 17, 2013 Cropped Barack Obama and Vladmir Putin shake hands at G8 summit, 2013.jpg
Putin and Obama shake hands at G8 summit, June 17, 2013

Space exploration

The 55th expedition to the International Space Station in February 2018 Expedition 55 crew portrait.jpg
The 55th expedition to the International Space Station in February 2018

The Planetary Society is known to have collaborated with Russia, especially Cosmos 1 and LIFE.

In 2014, NASA renewed a contract to ferry U.S. astronauts to the International Space Station on Soyuz rockets and spacecraft. Including additional support at the Russian launch site, this contract is costing the United States $457.9 million. Along with the renewal, NASA also announced that they would be cutting some contacts with Russia after the annexation of Crimea. [338]

Nuclear arms race

In 1995, a Black Brant sounding rocket launched from the Andøya Space Center caused a high alert in Russia, known as the Norwegian rocket incident. [339] The Russians thought it might be a nuclear missile launched from an American submarine. The incident occurred in the post-Cold War era, where many Russians were still very suspicious of the United States and NATO. [340] [341] The Norwegian rocket incident was the first and thus far only known incident where any nuclear-weapons state had its nuclear briefcase activated and prepared for launching an attack. [342]

President Donald Trump announced on 20 October 2018 that the U.S. would no longer consider itself bound by the 1987 INF Treaty’s provisions, raising nuclear tensions between the two powers. [343] [344] [345] Two days later, Russian military analyst Pavel Felgenhauer told Deutsche Welle that the new Cold War would make this treaty and other Cold War-era treaties "irrelevant because they correspond to a totally different world situation." [346] In early 2019, more than 90% of world's 13,865 nuclear weapons were owned by Russia and the United States. [347]

President Putin oversaw Russia's large-scale nuclear war exercises on 17 October 2019, where the Russian army integrated land, sea and air components of the nation's nuclear triad, nearly one year after Trump announced that the US was pulling-out of the nuclear treaty it had signed with Russia. [348]

Economic ties

The U.S. Congress voted to repeal the Jackson–Vanik amendment on November 16, 2012. [349]

"Last year [2015] was not particularly favorable for trade between Russia and the U.S. Our overall 2015 turnover was $21 billion, a decline of 27.9 percent," said a senior Russian official in April 2016. [350]

Reuters reported that U.S. companies "generated more than $90 billion in revenue from Russia in 2017." [351] According to the AALEP, "there are almost 3,000 American companies in Russia, and the U.S. is also the leader in terms of foreign companies in Special Economic Zones, with 11 projects." [352]

Military ties

Russian and U.S. sailors honoring military personnel who perished during World War II, Vladivostok, Russia, July 4, 2002 US Navy 020704-N-8646S-004 Vladivostok, Russia.jpg
Russian and U.S. sailors honoring military personnel who perished during World War II, Vladivostok, Russia, July 4, 2002
An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow. 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade-6.jpeg
An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow.

Following the demise of the Soviet Union, the United States and Russia signed a bilateral treaty called the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin.

The United States and Russia have conducted joint military maneuvers, training and counter-terrorist exercises in Germany. This was done in hopes to strengthen relations with the United States and Russia. [353] The Russian president has also proposed that the United States and Russia put a joint missile defense system in Azerbaijan, a proposal being considered by the United States. [354] In 2008, in response to tensions over Georgia, the United States had cancelled its most recent joint NATO-Russia military exercises.[ citation needed ]

As of August 2012, the U.S. and Russia continue to hold joint military exercises like Northern Eagle (held since 2004, together with Norway) [355] [356] and Vigilant/Watchful Eagle (with Canada)[ citation needed ] among others, with the aim of improving joint cooperation against terrorism and piracy.

NATO–Russia relations

Russia-U.S. relations are significantly influenced by the United States' leading role in NATO and policies thereof. NATO and Russia agreed to cooperate on security issues at the 2002 Rome summit and had been gradually improving relations. However, due to the expansion of the alliance, the Russian intervention in Georgia, Russia's war campaign against Ukraine and other controversies, relations have since deteriorated significantly. [357]

In May 2015, following increased tensions with NATO, Russia closed a key military transport corridor (the Northern Distribution Network), which had allowed NATO to deliver military supplies to Afghanistan through the Russian territory. [358] The Northern Distribution Network was established in 2009 in response to the increased risk of sending supplies through Pakistan. [359]

A June 2016 Levada poll found that 68% of Russians think that deploying NATO troops in the Baltic states and Poland – former Eastern bloc countries bordering Russia – is a threat to Russia. [360]

Joint operations and mutual support

Russia has expressed support for the United States' War on Terror. Russia has also agreed to provide logistic support for the United States forces in Afghanistan to aid in anti-terrorist operations. Russia has allowed U.S. and NATO forces to pass through its territory to go to Afghanistan. [358] In 2017, the former Deputy Secretary of State Antony Blinken said: "We cooperated with regard to Afghanistan, where Russia played a positive role, particularly in letting our forces and our equipment transit into and out of Afghanistan." [361]

See also

Related Research Articles

Foreign relations of Russia

The foreign relations of the Russian Federation are the policy of the government of Russia by which it guides the interactions with other nations, their citizens and foreign organizations. This article covers the foreign policy of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991.

Vladimir Putin President of Russia from 1999 to 2008 and again since 2012

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and a former intelligence officer who has served as President of Russia since 2012, previously being in the office from 1999 until 2008. He was also Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012.

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty Expired agreement between the USA and USSR (later Russia) on nuclear arms control

The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev signed the treaty on 8 December 1987. The US Senate approved the treaty on 27 May 1988, and Reagan and Gorbachev ratified it on 1 June 1988.

Sergey Lavrov Russian diplomat and politician

Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov is a Russian diplomat and politician. In office since 2004, he is the Foreign Minister of Russia. Previously, he was the Russian Representative to the UN, serving in the role from 1994 to 2004.

Turkey–United States relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Turkey and the United States of America

Turkey–United States relations are bilateral relations between Turkey and the United States. Relations after World War II evolved from the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943 and Turkey's entrance into World War II on the side of the Allies in February 1945. Later that year, Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations. Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine declared American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in significant U.S. military and economic support. This support manifested in the establishment of a clandestine stay-behind army, denoted the "Counter-Guerrilla", under Operation Gladio. After participating with United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952.

Iran–Turkey relations Diplomatic relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Turkey

The relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Turkey are complex and characterized by both tension and cooperation. Both countries fight for influence in the Middle East through supporting opposing proxies as part of the Iran-Turkey proxy conflict. The two countries are also major trade partners and are perceived as mutually interdependent due to geographical proximity as well as shared cultural, linguistic, and ethnic traits. For example, the Kurds, a Iranic ethnic group, are the second-largest ethnicity in Turkey.

Russia–Turkey relations Diplomatic relations between Russia and the Republic of Turkey

Russia–Turkey relations is the bilateral relationship between Russia and Turkey and their antecedent states. Relations between the two are rather cyclical. From the late 16th until the early 20th centuries, relations between the Ottoman and Russian empires were normally adverse and hostile and the two powers were engaged in numerous Russo-Turkish wars, comprising one of the longest wars in modern history. Russia attempted to extend its influence in the Balkans and gain control of the Bosphorus at the expense of the weakening Ottoman Empire. As a result, the diplomatic history between the two powers was extremely bitter and acrimonious up to World War I. However, in the early 1920s, as a result of the Bolshevik Russian government′s assistance to Turkish revolutionaries during the Turkish War of Independence, the governments' relations warmed. Relations again turned sour at the end of WWII as the Soviet government laid territorial claims and demanded other concessions from Turkey. Turkey joined NATO in 1952 and placed itself within the Western alliance against the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War, when relations between the two countries were at their lowest level. Relations began to improve the following year, when the Soviet Union renounced its territorial claims after the death of Stalin.

Israel–Russia relations Diplomatic relations between the State of Israel and Russia

Israel–Russia relations refers to the bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Israel and Russia. Russia has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Haifa. Israel has an embassy in Moscow and a consulate-general in Yekaterinburg.

The foreign policy of Vladimir Putin concerns the policies of Russia's president Vladimir Putin with respect to other nations. He held office from 2000 to 2008, and assumed power again in 2012.

Russia–NATO relations relations between Russia and the NATO

NATO–Russian relations, relations between the NATO military alliance and the Russian Federation were established in 1991 within the framework of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. In 1994, Russia joined the Partnership for Peace program, and since that time, NATO and Russia have signed several important agreements on cooperation. According to Vladimir Putin, he proposed the idea of Russia joining NATO to President Bill Clinton in 2000 during a visit to Moscow, to which Clinton responded that he "didn't mind".

The foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 2009 to 2017, during the Presidency of Barack Obama. The term Obama Doctrine is frequently used to describe the principles of the Obama administration's foreign policy.

New START 2010 nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation

New START is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Prague, and, after ratification, entered into force on 5 February 2011. It is expected to last at least until 2021.

The Second Cold War, also called Cold War II or the New Cold War, is a term describing post-Cold-War era of political and military tensions between the Western powers, especially the United States, and either China or Russia.

Russian reset

The Russian reset was an attempt by the Obama administration to improve relations between the United States and Russia in 2009–13.

The Republican Party of the United States has held a variety of views on foreign policy and national defense over the course of its existence. Generally speaking, it has advocated for a more militaristic foreign policy. Republican presidents have joined or started a number of wars over the course of American history, with mixed results.

Foreign policy of Donald Trump (2015–2016)

This article describes the foreign policy positions taken by Donald Trump during his 2016 presidential campaign.

Foreign policy of the Donald Trump administration Foreign policy of the United States from January 2017 to January 2021

Hallmarks of the foreign relations during Donald Trump's tenure as president of the United States (2017–2021) include unpredictability and uncertainty, and strained and sometimes antagonistic relationships with the U.S.'s European allies. He has praised and supported populist, neo-nationalist and authoritarian governments; has described himself as a nationalist; and has referred to his foreign policy as "America First." Trump has espoused isolationist, non-interventionist, and protectionist views.

2018 Russia–United States summit meeting between Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin in Helsinki on 16 July 2018

The 2018 Russia–United States summit was a summit meeting between United States President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin on July 16, 2018, in Helsinki, Finland. The Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs officially titled the summit as the #HELSINKI2018 Meeting and it was hosted by the President of Finland Sauli Niinistö.

Peace Treaty on Korean Peninsula Proposed peace treaty for Korea

The Peace Treaty on Korean Peninsula is a proposed settlement to formally end military hostilities on the Korean Peninsula as a follow-up to the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement implemented by the United Nations after the Korean War. During the inter-Korean summit on April 27, 2018, Kim Jong-un and Moon Jae-in signed the Panmunjom Declaration; the declaration involved an agreement about mutual efforts and action items for transforming the armistice agreement into a peace treaty with the cooperation of the United States and China. During the 2018 Trump–Kim summit, US president Donald Trump and Kim signed a Joint Statement which reaffirmed the Panmunjom Declaration.

Aftermath of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, commonly known as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1, and the European Union.


  1. 1 2 Реакция России на предстоящую военную операцию НАТО оказалась беспрецедентно резкой Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, 24 March 1999.
  2. Владимир Путин ответил на вопросы журналистов: Глава государства ответил на вопросы российских журналистов по завершении саммита БРИКС., 16 October 2016: ″Вопрос: Отношения с Америкой расстроились по сирийскому вопросу… — В.Путин: Вы ошибаетесь. Вы вспомните, что происходило вокруг Югославии. Оттуда всё и началось, я ещё и президентом не был. Я, что ли, развернул самолёт над Атлантикой? Это, по‑моему, Примаков сделал.″
  3. Глава 1. Основы конституционного строя Archived May 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Article 1 of the Constitution of Russia: "ARTICLE 1: 1. The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government. 2. The names Russian Federation and Russia are equivalent."
  4. Gopnik, Adam (2018). "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund . Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  6. 1 2 3 4 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund . Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  7. "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  8. "Treasury TIC Data". U.S. Department of the Treasury. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  9. "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period)". Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  10. "U.S. International Reserve Position". U.S. Department of The Treasury. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
  11. 1 2 3 "Russia Military Strength".
  12. 1 2 3 "United States of America Military Strength".
  13. 1 2 "Status of World Nuclear Forces – Federation Of American Scientists". Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  15. "Россия установила дипломатические отношения с США".
  16. Norman E. Saul, Richard D. McKinzie. Russian-American Dialogue on Cultural Relations, 1776-1914 p 95. ISBN   0-8262-1097-X, 9780826210975
  17. Thomas A. Bailey, "The Russian Fleet Myth Re-Examined." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 38.1 (1951): 81-90. online
  18. James R. Gibson, "Why the Russians Sold Alaska." Wilson Quarterly 3.3 (1979): 179-188 online.
  19. Thomas A. Bailey, "Why the United States Purchased Alaska," Pacific Historical Review 3.1 (1934): 39-49. online
  20. Taylor Stults, "Roosevelt, Russian Persecution of Jews, and American Public Opinion." Jewish Social Studies (1971) 33#1: 13-22. online
  21. "Milestones: 1899–1913 - Office of the Historian". US State Department. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  22. John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase. pp. 257–59. ISBN   9781438110127.
  23. Русские трудовые эмигранты в США (конец XIX века – 1917 год)
  24. Признание Америки Radio Liberty, 30 April 2018.
  25. "Nov. 16, 1933 | U.S. Establishes Diplomatic Relations With the Soviet Union". The New York Times.
  26. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949 U.S. Department of State.
  27. Luman H. Long. 1968 Centennial Edition. The World Almanac and Book of Facts . Newspaper Enterprise Association, Inc., N.Y., N.Y., p. 532.
  28. Консульская конвенция между Правительством Союза Советских Социалистических Республик и Правительством Соединенных Штатов Америки
  29. "Milestones: 1969–76 - Office of the Historian". Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  30. Malta summit ends Cold War, BBC News, 3 December 1989. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  31. 1 2 Michael Laris (December 10, 1999). "In China, Yeltsin Lashes Out at Clinton: Criticisms of Chechen War Are Met With Blunt Reminder of Russian Nuclear Power". The Washington Post. p. A35.
  32. "Russia condemns Nato at UN". BBC News. March 25, 1999.
  33. "Fighting for a foreign land". BBC News. May 20, 1999.
  34. Mazzetti, Mark; Eric Lichtblau (December 11, 2016). "C.I.A. Judgment on Russia Built on Swell of Evidence". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  35. "Bush and Putin: Best of friends". BBC. June 16, 2001. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  36. Heritage, Timothy (August 8, 2013). "In wishing Bush well, Putin has message for Obama". Reuters. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  37. Gottemoeller, Rose (June 5, 2007). "Strained Russian Relations Greet Bush in Europe". NPR (Interview). Interviewed by Robert Siegel . Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  38. Halpin, Tony (October 17, 2007). "Vladimir Putin pledges to complete Iranian nuclear reactor". The Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  39. "White House Transcript of 17 October 2007 Press Conference". October 17, 2007.
  40. "Putin compares US shield to Cuba". BBC News. October 26, 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  41. "Russia could aim rockets at European missile shield – Putin". RIA Novosti. February 14, 2008. Archived from the original on February 17, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  42. "Russia warns over US-Czech shield". BBC News. July 8, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  43. "No permanent foreign inspectors in US-Czech radar talks: minister". May 11, 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
  44. Andrusz, Katya (August 15, 2008). "Poland Gets U.S. Military Aid in Missile-Shield Deal". Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
  45. Leslie, Neil (November 13, 2008). "The Kaliningrad Missile Crisis" . Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  46. "Russia to deploy missiles in Kaliningrad to counter US threat". Xinhua News Agency. November 6, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  47. Cooper, Helene (April 1, 2009). "Promises of 'Fresh Start' for U.S.-Russia Relations" . The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  48. "U.S.-Russia Relations: In Need of a New Reset". Time. March 16, 2010. Archived from the original on March 21, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  49. "Obama: U.S. wants strong, peaceful Russia". CNN. July 7, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  50. Spiegel, Peter (July 25, 2009). "Biden Says Weakened Russia Will Bend to U.S." The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  51. 1 2 Friedman, George (July 27, 2009). "The Russian Economy and Russian Power". Stratfor. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  52. Baker, Peter; Ellen Barry (March 24, 2010). "Russia and U.S. Report Breakthrough on Arms" . The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  53. U.S. Vice President Meets Putin, Russian Opposition 10 March 2011.
  54. Biden 'Opposes' 3rd Putin Term The Moscow Times, 11 March 2011.
  55. Steinhauer, Jennifer (December 15, 2020). "Biden to Face a Confrontational Russia in a World Changed From His Time in Office". New York Times.
  56. Herszenhorn, David M.; Ellen Barry (December 8, 2011). "Putin Contends Clinton Incited Unrest Over Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  57. Braun, Aurel (2012). "Resetting Russian–Eastern European relations for the 21st century". Communist and Post-Communist Studies. 45 (3–4): 389–400. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2012.07.009. ISSN   0967-067X.
  58. Ratti, Luca (2013). "'Resetting' NATO–Russia Relations: A Realist Appraisal Two Decades after the USSR". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 26 (2): 141–161. doi:10.1080/13518046.2013.779845. ISSN   1351-8046. S2CID   145351757.
  59. "U.S.-Russia Cooperation Based on Interests - White House". RIA Novosti. March 9, 2012. Archived from the original on May 25, 2013.
  60. Obama welcomes Syria chemical weapons deal but retains strikes option The Guardian, September 14, 2013.
  61. Obama's biggest achievement in Syria fell short — and Assad is rubbing it in his face Business Insider, August 28, 2016.
  62. "Europeans View Obama's Exit With a Mix of Admiration and Regret". The New York Times. November 6, 2016.
  63. 1 2 Interview With David Gregory of NBC's Meet the Press March 2, 2014.
  64. Russia's Stake in Iran Nuclear Deal VOA, July 18, 2015.
  65. The awkward moment when Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin met at the UN General Assembly Telegraph, September 29, 2015.
  66. Heintz, Jim; Liudas Dapkus (May 3, 2012). "Russia's military threatens pre-emptive strike if NATO goes ahead with missile plan". Fox News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  67. Gertz, Bill (August 6, 2012). "Putin's July 4th Message:Russian nuclear-capable bombers intercepted near West Coast in second U.S. air defense zone intrusion in two weeks". The Washington Free Beacon. Archived from the original on July 10, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  68. Gertz, Bill (August 14, 2012). "Silent Running". Free Beacon. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  69. Richard Dunham (August 16, 2012). "Red October redux? John Cornyn demands answers from Pentagon on Russian sub in Gulf of Mexico (UPDATED)". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  70. "Russia's Putin signs anti-U.S. adoption bill". CNN News Network.
  71. 1 2 3 Gertz, Bill (February 15, 2013). "Bear Bombers Over Guam". Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  72. 1 2 3 "Air Force confirms Russian jets circled US territory of Guam". Fox News. February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  73. Bayanihan. Science and Technology. December 27, 2013. Putin: Russia begins deployment of new silo-based missile system December 27, 2013.
  74. "Russian INF Treaty Violations: Assessment and Response" . Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  75. 1 2 Gordon, Michael R. (July 28, 2014). "U.S. Says Russia Tested Cruise Missile, Violating Treaty". The New York Times . USA. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  76. "US and Russia in danger of returning to era of nuclear rivalry". The Guardian . UK. January 4, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  77. Испытания новой МБР завершатся в декабре Rossiyskaya Gazeta, December 27, 2014.
  78. Убийца ПРО «Рубеж» выходит на позиции: последнее предупреждение США TV Zvezda, April 27, 2015.
  79. Gordon, Michael R. (June 5, 2015). "U.S. Says Russia Failed to Correct Violation of Landmark 1987 Arms Control Deal". The New York Times . US. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
  80. Suné von Solms and Renier van Heerden. "The Consequences of Edward Snowden NSA Related Information Disclosures." Iccws 2015-The Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (2015) online.
  81. Sanchez, Raf (August 7, 2013). "Barack Obama cancels meeting with Vladimir Putin over Edward Snowden". The Daily Telegraph . London.
  82. UN Security Council action on Crimea referendum blocked UN web site.
  83. Экс-премьер Украины Азаров назвал "кураторов" переворота на Украине RIA Novosti, 16 December 2016.
  84. новостей, Независимое бюро. "Независимое бюро новостей - Суд в РФ по "перевороту" в Украине допросил Азарова, Клюева, Захарченко и Якименко".
  85. ""Интересы РФ и США в отношении Украины несовместимы друг с другом": Глава Stratfor Джордж Фридман о первопричинах украинского кризиса". Kommersant . December 19, 2014.
  86. "George Friedman: Russia is winning the internet". Business Insider . April 21, 2016.
  87. "Russia Is Ousted From Group of 8 by U.S. and Allies". The New York Times . Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  88. 1 2 "U.S., other powers kick Russia out of G8". March 24, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  89. "Russia Suspended From G8 Club Of Rich Countries". Business Insider. March 24, 2014.
  90. "Barack Obama: Russia is a regional power showing weakness over Ukraine". The Guardian. March 25, 2014. Retrieved November 1, 2014.
  91. Интервью немецкому изданию Bild. Часть 2 Kremlin.Ru, January 12, 2016.
  92. Interfax (January 12, 2016). "Putin disagrees with Obama over Russia's regional status, US exceptionalism".
  93. "Exclusive Interview with European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker". Euronews. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  94. "Russia warns new US sanctions will return ties to Cold War era". Russia News.Net. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
  95. Statement by the President on the Ukraine Freedom Support Act, December 18, 2014.
  96. Baker, Peter (December 16, 2014). "Obama Signals Support for New U.S. Sanctions to Pressure Russian Economy". New York Times. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
  97. "Ukraine crisis: Russia defies fresh Western sanctions". BBC. December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2014.
  98. Koren, Marina (December 31, 2014). "How 2014 Became the Worst Year in U.S.-Russia Relations Since the Cold War". National Journal. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
  100. "Russia's Lavrov says Washington declines deeper military talks on Syria". NEWSru. October 14, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  101. ""Это обидно": Лавров сообщил, что США отказались принять делегацию РФ для обсуждения сирийского кризиса". NEWSru. October 14, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  102. "US president's comments follow coalition's expression of deep concerns over targeting in Russian bombing campaign". The Guardian. October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  103. "As Russia escalates, U.S. rules out military cooperation in Syria". Reuters. October 7, 2015. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  104. "Russia will pay price for Syrian airstrikes, says US defence secretary". The Guardian. October 8, 2015.
  105. "Russians Strike Targets in Syria, but Not ISIS Areas". The New York Times. September 30, 2015. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  106. "Meeting with President of Syria Bashar Assad". The Kremlin, Moscow. October 21, 2015. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  107. "Assad Makes Unannounced Trip to Moscow to Discuss Syria With Putin". The New York Times. October 21, 2015.
  108. "Syria crisis: US attacks Moscow welcome for Assad". BBC. October 22, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  109. "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into Proxy War With Russia". The New York Times. October 12, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  110. Pengelly, Martin (October 4, 2015). "John McCain says US is engaged in proxy war with Russia in Syria". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 12, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  111. "U.S., Russia escalate involvement in Syria". CNN. October 13, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  112. ""The Russians have made a serious mistake": how Putin's Syria gambit will backfire". The VOA. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  113. Simon Shuster (October 12, 2015). "Putin's Syria Gamble". Time. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  114. "Сирийское урегулирование продвинулось не дальше Башара Асада". Kommersant . November 16, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  115. "G20: Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin agree to Syrian-led transition", The Guardian, November 16, 2015.
  116. Gordon, Michael R.; Kramer, Andrew E. (October 3, 2016). "Tension With Russia Rises as U.S. Halts Syria Negotiations". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  117. "Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации" . Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  118. "Путин подписал закон о приостановлении действия соглашения с США об утилизации плутония". October 31, 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  119. "Putin Halts Plutonium Pact, Demands End to Sanctions by U.S." Bloomberg. October 3, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  120. Kramer, Andrew E. (October 3, 2016). "Vladimir Putin Exits Nuclear Security Pact, Citing 'Hostile Actions' by U.S." The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  121. "Russia's United Nations Ambassador: Tensions with US are probably worst since 1973". The Independent. October 15, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  122. "Syria conflict: West considers new sanctions over Aleppo". BBC. October 16, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  123. Cockburn, Harry (October 17, 2016). "UK and US propose economic sanctions against Russia over 'barbaric siege' of Aleppo". The Independent. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  124. 1 2 "US election: The Russia factor: Officials say Moscow's interference is unprecedented. Has the Kremlin achieved its goal?". The FT. November 4, 2016.
  125. "Russia, Suspected in Hacking, Has Uneasy History With Hillary Clinton". The New York Times. July 28, 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  126. "Kremlin: Obama team trying to damage ties with Russia". The Washington Post. November 17, 2016.
  127. "Послание Президента Федеральному Собранию" . Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  128. "Barack Obama orders 'full review' of possible Russian hacking in US election". The Guardian. December 9, 2016.
  129. "Trump, CIA on collision course over Russia's role in U.S. election". The Washington Post. December 10, 2016.
  130. "Russia 'intervened to promote Trump' - US intelligence". BBC. December 10, 2016.
  131. "Donald Trump rejects CIA Russia hacking report". BBC. December 11, 2016.
  132. "Donald Trump's transition team dismisses CIA findings Russia attempted to influence US election in his favour". The Independent. December 10, 2016.
  133. Chozick, Amy (December 17, 2016), "Clinton Says 'Personal Beef' by Putin Led to Hacking Attacks", The New York Times , p. A12, retrieved December 17, 2016
  134. Abdullah, Halimah (December 16, 2016), "Hillary Clinton Singles Out Putin, Comey in Election Loss", NBC News , retrieved December 17, 2016
  135. Keith, Tamara (December 16, 2016), "In Leaked Remarks, Hillary Clinton Explains Putin's 'Beef' With Her", National Public Radio , retrieved December 17, 2016
  136. "Barack Obama promises retaliation against Russia over hacking during US election". The Guardian. December 16, 2016.
  137. "Obama Confronts Complexity of Using a Mighty Cyberarsenal Against Russia". The New York Times. December 17, 2016.
  138. Comment by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova on new US National Defence Authorisation Act 27 December 2016.
  139. Russia-US row: Trump praises Putin amid hacking expulsions BBC, 31 December 2016.
  140. Obama administration announces measures to punish Russia for 2016 election interference The Washington Post, 29 December 2016.
  141. Feldman, Brian (January 6, 2017). "DNI Report: High Confidence Russia Interfered With U.S. Election". Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  142. "Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin ready to hold summit following historic phone call". The Telegraph. January 28, 2017.
  143. "Trump and Putin make counter-terror top priority in first call". BBC. January 28, 2017.
  144. Majumdar, Dave (February 15, 2017). "Russia's Dangerous Nuclear Forces are Back". The National Interest.
  145. U.S. general says Russia deploys cruise missile, threatens NATO Reuters, 8 March 2017.
  146. "Statement from Pentagon Spokesman Capt. Jeff Davis on U.S. strike in S" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  147. Starr, Barbara; Diamond, Jeremy (April 6, 2017). "Trump launches military strike against Syria". CNN. Archived from the original on April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  148. "Syria war: US launches missile strikes following chemical 'attack'". BBC News. April 7, 2017. Archived from the original on April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  149. Robinson, Julian. "Putin calls US strikes against Syria 'aggression against sovereign country'". TASS . Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  150. Morello and Filipov (April 11, 2017). "Tillerson brings tough line to Moscow over Russia's backing for Syrian regime". Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  151. Медведев объявил, что разгромом военной базы в Сирии США поставили себя "на грань боевых столкновений с Россией" NEWSru, 7 April 2017.
  152. "Russia says US air strikes in Syria came 'within an inch' of military clash with their forces". The Independent . Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  153. Moscow, Julian Borger Alec Luhn in (April 13, 2017). "Donald Trump says US relations with Russia 'may be at all-time low'". The Guardian.
  154. Отношения России и США застыли не только в сфере политики, считает Ушаков RIA Novosti, 31 May 2017.
  155. Путин назвал отношения России и США худшими со времен холодной войны RIA Novosti, 2 June 2017.
  156. США впервые не направили в посольство РФ поздравление с Днем России Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 13 June 2017.
  157. Захарова: США не передавали официального поздравления с Днем России Vedomosti, 15 June 2017.
  158. Захарова: Москва так и не получила от Вашингтона поздравление с Днем России TASS, 15 June 2017.
  159. "Spineless Trump First POTUS Not to Congratulate Russian Holiday in 25 Years". June 14, 2017.
  160. "The Trump administration has denied ExxonMobil permission to bypass sanctions to drill for oil in Russia". CNN. April 21, 2017.
  161. "Exxon Mobil Sues U.S. Over Penalty For Post-Sanctions Russian Deal". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). July 20, 2017.
  162. Hirschfeld Davis, Julie (May 10, 2017). "Trump Bars U.S. Press, but Not Russia's, at Meeting With Russian Officials". New York Times .
  163. Rosenberg, Matthew; Schmitt, Eric (May 15, 2017). "Trump Revealed Highly Classified Intelligence to Russia, in Break With Ally, Officials Say". The New York Times . p. A1.
  164. Miller, Greg; Jaffe, Greg. "Trump revealed highly classified information to Russian foreign minister and ambassador". The Washington Post . Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  165. Pegues, Jeff (May 16, 2017). "Former officials call Trump's disclosure 'serious'". CBS News . Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  166. Dalrymple, Jim, II; Leopold, Jason (May 15, 2017). "Trump Revealed Highly Classified Information To Russians During White House Visit". BuzzFeed . Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  167. Wilner, Michael (July 6, 2017). "Trump Calls on Putin to Distance Russia from Syria and Iran". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  168. Cassidy, John (July 7, 2017). "The Trump-Putin Bromance is Back On". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  169. Sampathkumar, Mythili (July 7, 2017). "Donald Trump's meeting with Vladimir Putin lasts more than 2 hours after being scheduled for 30 minutes". The Independent. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  170. Nechepurenko, Ivan (July 14, 2017). "Russia Warns U.S. It Could Expel Americans Over Diplomatic Dispute". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  171. 1 2 Заявление Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации Russian Foreign Ministry, 28 July 2017.
  172. Russia expels US diplomats in tit-for-tat over sanctions FT, 28 July 2017.
  173. Американским дипломатам закрыли дачный сезон Kommersant, 28 July 2017.
  174. "Putin asks US to cut its embassy and consulate staff in Russia by 755". Delhi NYOOOZ. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
  175. Putin confirms 755 US diplomatic staff must leave BBC, 30 July 2017.
  176. Эксклюзивное интервью Владимира Путина: почему ответ России чувствителен для США, 30 July 2017.
  177. "Russia's Medvedev Says U.S. Sanctions Bill Ends Hope For Better Ties". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  178. Медведев: ужесточением санкций США объявили России полноценную торговую войну TASS, 2 August 2017.
  179. Trump Signs Russian Sanctions Into Law, With Caveats The New York Times, 2 August 2017
  180. Statement by President Donald J. Trump on the Signing of H.R. 3364 The White House, 2 August 2017
  181. "Achieving Parity in Diplomatic Missions". U.S. Department of State. August 31, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  182. Russia condemns US 'plans' to search Washington trade mission BBC, 2 September 2017.
  183. Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, 3 September 2017.
  184. Merica, Dan (November 11, 2018). "Trump, Putin shake hands, chat multiple times at Asia-Pacific summit". CNN. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  185. Despite Trump's hopes, US-Russia relations are getting chilly CNN, 24 December 2017.
  186. Treasury adds five to Russian sanctions list that has infuriated the Kremlin CNBC, 20 December 2017.
  187. Trump: Russia and China ‘rival powers’ in new security plan BBC, 18 December 2017.
  188. Sarah Sanders cryptically hints at action against Russia CNN, 20 February 2018.
  189. Trump’s ‘tougher on Russia’ claim fits a pattern of striving to one-up Obama The Washington Post, 20 February 2018.
  190. Chiefs Of Three Russian Intelligence Agencies Travel To Washington Radio Liberty, 1 February 2018.
  191. US suspends sanctions against Russian security chiefs during their visit to Washington TASS, 2 February 2018.
  192. Russian spy chiefs met in Washington with CIA director to discuss counterterrorism The Washington Post, 31 January 2018.
  193. «Визит Нарышкина касается национальных интересов США», 2 February 2018.
  194. Why the Directors of Russia’s Intelligence Agencies Visited Washington (Op-ed): Secret meetings between the U.S. and Russia are the best hope for restoring relations The Moscow Times, 8 February 2018.
  195. CIA defends meeting with Russian spy officials, in letter to Schumer Fox News, 1 February 2018.
  196. White House Considers Citing Russian Deaths in Syria as Sign of U.S. Resolve Bloomberg, 21 February 2018.
  197. Russian mercenary boss spoke with Kremlin before attacking US forces in Syria, intel claims The Telegraph, 23 February 2018.
  198. Putin claims new 'invincible' missile can pierce US defenses CNN, 1 March 2018.
  199. Mattis Sees No Change in Russian Military Capability in Light of Putin’s Speech U.S. Department of Defense, 11 March 2018.
  200. Trump tells aides not to talk publicly about Russia policy moves: But Trump, irked by Putin's nuclear buildup, told him last week: "If you want to have an arms race we can do that, but I'll win." NBC News, 29 March 2018.
  201. Kosinski, Michelle. "Trump's National Security Council recommends expelling Russian diplomats". CNN. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  202. Rucker, Philip; Nakashima, Ellen (March 26, 2018). "Trump administration expels 60 Russian officers, shuts Seattle consulate in response to attack on former spy in Britain". Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  203. США высылают из страны 60 российских дипломатов TASS, 26 March 2018.
  204. Lavrov: 'Rest assured, Russia won't tolerate' West’s obnoxious conduct TASS, 27 March 2018.
  205. Лавров обвинил США в колоссальном шантаже европейских стран Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 27 March 2018.
  206. Majumdar, David (April 11, 2018). "Tensions Are Flaring between Washington and Moscow". The National Interest. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  207. U.S., Russia clash at U.N. over chemical weapons attacks in Syria Reuters, 9 April 2018.
  208. Russian officials warn of possible military clash with US over Syria The Guardian, 10 April 2018.
  209. Россия нацелила "Калибры" на базы США в Сирии: Вооруженные силы РФ скрытно приведены в полную боеготовность Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 11 April 2018.
  210. "America vows to respond to a suspected chemical attack in Syria". The Economist . April 9, 2018. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  211. Assad tells US to leave Syria CNN, 31 May 2018.
  212. Assad raises prospect of clashes with U.S. forces in Syria Reuters, 31 May 2018.
  213. DeYoung, Karen (June 9, 2018). "In Trump, some fear the end of the world order". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  214. Zurcher, Anthony (July 16, 2018). "Trump-Putin summit: After Helsinki, the fallout at home". BBC News. BBC News Services. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  215. Calamur, Krishnadev (July 16, 2018). "Trump Sides With the Kremlin, Against the U.S. Government". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  216. Trump Hails Summit With Putin, Stirs Anger In Congress Radio Liberty, 16 July 2018.
  217. "John McCain: Trump gave 'one of the most disgraceful performances by an American president in memory'".
  218. 'Putin's poodle:' Newspapers around the world react to Trump-Putin meeting CNN, 17 July 2018.
  219. "Trump approves sanctions on builders of Russia-to-Europe gas pipelines". France24. December 20, 2019.
  220. "Nord Stream 2: Trump approves sanctions on Russia gas pipeline". BBC News. December 21, 2019.
  221. "Germany, EU decry US Nord Stream sanctions". Deutsche Welle. December 21, 2019.
  222. "Ukraine and Russia look to strike new gas deal amid US sanctions threa". CNBC. December 16, 2019.
  223. "Outrage mounts over report Russia offered bounties to Afghanistan militants for killing US soldiers". The Guardian. June 27, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  224. "Why we need a little skepticism, and more evidence, on Russian bounties". The Hill. July 7, 2020.
  225. Nakashima, Ellen; DeYoung, Karen; Ryan, Missy; Hudson, John (June 28, 2020). "Russian bounties to Taliban-linked militants resulted in deaths of U.S. troops, according to intelligence assessments". The Washington Post.
  226. 1 2 3 "Top Pentagon officials say Russian bounty program not corroborated". ABC News. July 10, 2020.
  227. 1 2 Nakashima, Ellen; DeYoung, Karen; Ryan, Missy; Hudson, John (June 28, 2020). "Russian bounties to Taliban-linked militants resulted in deaths of U.S. troops, according to intelligence assessments". The Washington Post.
  228. "House panel votes to constrain Afghan drawdown, ask for assessment on 'incentives' to attack US troops". The Hill. July 1, 2020.
  229. Axe, David (September 25, 2020). "U.S. Air Force B-52s Just Flew A Mock Bombing Run On Russia's Baltic Fortress". Forbes.
  230. "Trump expects Russia to return Crimea to Ukraine: White House". Reuters . February 14, 2017.
  231. "Trump blames Putin for backing 'Animal Assad'". Politico. April 8, 2018.
  232. Rampton, Roberta; Sobczak, Pawel (July 6, 2017). "Trump criticizes Russia, calls for defense of Western civilization". Reuters .
  233. "Exclusive: Trump accuses Russia of helping North Korea evade sanctions; says U.S. needs more missile defense". Reuters . January 17, 2018.
  234. "Venezuela crisis: Russia hits out at 'boorish' Trump". BBC News. March 28, 2019.
  235. "Trump vows to 'counteract' any Russia election meddling". Daily Nation. March 7, 2018.
  236. "Trump expelling 60 Russian diplomats in wake of UK nerve agent attack". CNN. March 26, 2018.
  237. Borak, Donna; Egan, Matt (April 21, 2017). "Trump denies Exxon permission to drill for oil in Russia". CNN.
  238. Bunch, Sonny (March 15, 2017). "Rachel Maddow takes conspiracy theorizing mainstream with Trump tax 'scoop'". The Washington Post.
  239. Maté, Aaron (April 26, 2019). "The Mueller Report Indicts the Trump-Russia Conspiracy Theory". The Nation.
  240. "Trump, Russia, and the collapse of the collusion narrative". Al-Jazeera. March 30, 2019.
  241. Greenwald, Glenn (April 18, 2019). "Robert Mueller Did Not Merely Reject the Trump-Russia Conspiracy Theories. He Obliterated Them". The Intercept.
  242. Bershidsky, Leonid (March 31, 2019). "The U.S. Needs a Post-Mueller Reality Check". Bloomberg News.
  243. Paskin, Willa (March 29, 2019). "Rachel Maddow's Conspiracy Brain". Slate.
  244. Marcetic, Branko (March 2019). "Closing the Russiagate". Jacobin.
  245. Reynolds, Glenn (April 22, 2019). "Mueller report: Donald Trump collusion conspiracy theories are now exposed. Will they end?". USA Today.
  246. Barkan, Ross (March 28, 2019). "Will Rachel Maddow face a reckoning over her Trump-Russia coverage?". The Guardian.
  247. Withnall, Adam; Sengupta, Kim (January 12, 2017). "The 10 key Donald Trump allegations from the classified Russia memos". The Independent . Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  248. Bertrand, Natasha (January 10, 2017). "Trump briefed on unverified claims that Russian operatives have compromising information on him". Business Insider . Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  249. Bertrand, Natasha (September 30, 2019). "The Russia Hawk in the White House". Politico . Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  250. Mackey, Robert (July 16, 2018). "Trump and Putin Met in Helsinki's Hall of Mirrors. Here Are the Highlights". The Intercept