Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene

Last updated

This article is a list of biological species, subspecies, and evolutionary significant units that are known to have become extinct during the Holocene , the current geologic epoch, ordered by their known or approximate date of disappearance from oldest to most recent.


The Holocene is considered to have started with the Holocene glacial retreat around 11650 years Before Present (c.9700 BC). It is characterized by a general trend towards global warming, the expansion of anatomically modern humans ( Homo sapiens ) to all emerged land masses, the appearance of agriculture and animal husbandry, and a reduction in global biodiversity. The latter, dubbed the sixth mass extinction in Earth history, is largely attributed to increased human population and activity, and may have started already during the preceding Pleistocene epoch with the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna.

The following list is incomplete by necessity, since the majority of extinctions are thought to be undocumented, and for many others there isn't a definitive, widely accepted last, or most recent record. According to the species-area theory, the present rate of extinction may be up to 140,000 species per year. [1]

10th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
10250-9180 BC [2] Page's crane Grus pagei Rancho La Brea, California, United StatesUndetermined.
La Brea owl Oraristix breaSouthern California, United States
10210-9850 BC [2] Errant vulture Neogyps erransCalifornia, United States
10045-9905 BC [3] Eurasian cave lion Panthera spelaeaNorthern Eurasia and Beringia
10035-9845 BC [2] Dow's puffin Fratercula dowi Channel Islands of California, United States
9948-9306 BC [4] Northern glyptodont Glyptotherium sp. Florida and Texas to northeastern Brazil
9705-9545 BC [5] Patagonian panther Panthera onca mesembrina Patagonia
9690-9040 BC [6] Toronto subway deer Torontoceros hypnogeos Toronto, Canada
9610-9220 BC [7] Haiti pine forest ground sloth Neocnus dousman Hispaniola
9580-8860 BC [8] Dwarf pronghorn Capromeryx minorSouthwestern United States and Mexico
9550 BC [9] Chinese cave hyenaCrocuta crocuta ultima East Asia
9550 BC [10] [11] Shrub-ox Euceratherium collinumSouthwestern North America
American mountain deer Odocoileus lucasi Oasisamerica [12] and Mexico [13] Hunting? [11]
Stock's pronghorn Stockoceros sp.Mexico and Southwestern United States
c. 9515 BC [14] Southeastern giant tortoise Hesperotestudo crassiscutata Southern United States Undetermined.
9500-9300 BC [15] Sardinian dhole Cynotherium sardous Corsica and Sardinia
9460-9350 BC [16] [3] American lion Panthera atroxNorth America;
Western South America?
9381-9281 BC [17] Macrauchenia Macrauchenia patachonicaSouthwestern South AmericaHunting. [18]
9350 BC [19] Long-nosed peccary Mylohyus nasutus Eastern United States Habitat loss and competition with the American black bear. [11]
9200-9350 BC [20] American mastodon Mammut americanumNorth AmericaUndetermined.
9190-8870 BC [11] Jefferson's ground sloth Megalonyx jeffersoniiNorth AmericaUndetermined.
9130-9030 BC [5] Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus exilisChannel Islands of California, United States
9117-8793 BC [4] Highland gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon Central America, northern and central Andes [21] Hunting? [22]
9100-8380 BC [2] Californian turkey Meleagris californicaCalifornia, United StatesUndetermined.
c. 9050 BC [14] Wilson's tortoise Hesperotestudo wilsoniSouthwestern United States
Ryukyu tortoise Manouria oyamai Ryukyu, Japan
9050 BC [23] Cypriot genet Genetta plesictoides Cyprus
9050-8050 BC [23] [2] Miyako roe deer Capreolus tokunagai Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan
Asphalt stork Ciconia maltha Americas
Miyako long-tailed rat Diplothrix miyakoensisMiyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan
Merriam's teratorn Teratornis merriamiCalifornia, United States

9th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
8995-8845 BC [5] North American short-faced bear Arctodus simusNorth AmericaCompetition with the grizzly bear. [11]
8965-8875 BC [5] [24] Mexican horse Equus conversidensHunting. [5]
8850-8750 BC [25] Flat-headed peccary Platygonus compressusPossibly vegetation changes induced by climate change and competition with the American black bear. [11]
8800-8300 BC [2] Schneider's duck Anas schneideri Converse County, Wyoming, United StatesUndetermined.
Large-billed blackbird Euphagus magnirostrisCalifornia to Venezuela and Peru
8470-8320 BC [5] Argentinian short-faced bear Arctotherium tarijense Argentina [26]
8430-8130 BC [27] Stag-moose Cervalces scottiEastern United States
8420 BC [8] Woodland muskox Bootherium bombifronsNorth America
8350-7550 BC [27] Shasta ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensisSouthwestern United StatesHunting. [28]
8340-3950 BC Giant Cape zebra Equus capensis Southern Africa Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period. [29]
8301-7190 BC [15] Giant pika Ochotona whartoniNorthern North America;
Eastern Siberia?
8250-8150 BC [25] Giant beaver Castoroides ohiensisNorth America
8200-7660 BC [27] Vero tapir Tapirus veroensisSouthern United StatesHunting. [11] [28] [18]
8100 BC [27] Harrington's mountain goat Oreamnos harringtoniSouthern Rocky Mountains
8059 BC [30] Smaller South American horse Hippidion saldiasi [31] Eastern South America [32]
8050-5845 BC South American palmate-antlered deer Morenelaphus brachyceros Temperate South AmericaUndetermined. [33]
8050 BC or less Hipposideros besaoka Northern coast of Madagascar Undetermined. [34]
8000 BC [15] Glossothere Glossotherium sp.South America [21]

8th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
c. 7950 BC [35] South American pointed-antlered deer Antifer ultra River Plate and central Chile Undetermined.
7930 BC [11] North American pampathere Holmesina septentrionalis Southeastern United States
7830-7430 BC [5] [15] Cuvier's small ground sloth Catonyx cuvieriEastern South America
7820-7300 BC [36] Woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatisNorthern EurasiaShrinking of the mammoth steppe due to warmer and wetter climate conditions. [37]
7800-7740 BC [38] Panamerican ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi [39] Southern United States to BrazilUndetermined.
7615-7305 BC North American sabertooth Smilodon fatalisSouthern North America and northern South AmericaPrey loss. [11]
7600-6245 BC [40] Asian ostrich Struthio asiaticus Greece and Eastern Europe through Kazakhstan to India and China [41] Undetermined.
7390-7320 BC Xibalbaonyx oviceps Quintana Roo, MexicoHunting. [4]
7330-6250 BC(unconfirmed) [42] Asian straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon namadicus South and east AsiaUndetermined.
7330-7030 BC [15] South American sabertooth Smilodon populatorEastern South AmericaCompetition with human hunters. [18]
7250-5330 BC American camel Camelops hesternusWestern North AmericaHunting. [11]
7250-6750 BC [24] [43] Scott's horse Equus scottiHunting?
7160-6760 BC Chilean scelidodont Scelidodon chiliensisWestern South America [44] Undetermined. [15]
7100-6300 BC [6] [45] Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbiNorthern Mexico, western and southern United StatesHunting. [11]
7043-6507 BC [15] Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major Cuba Undetermined.
Cuban pauraque Siphonorhis daiquiri
7043-6503 BC [15] Giant ghost-faced bat Mormoops magna

7th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
6833-6321 BC Long-legged llama Hemiauchenia macrocephalaNorth and Central AmericaHunting. [11] [18]
6689 BC [11] Darwin's mylodon Mylodon darwiniPampas and PatagoniaHunting. [18]
6660-4880 BC [15] Larger South American horse Equus neogeusSouth America [46]
6660-4880 BC [15] [47] Common glyptodont Glyptodon sp.Eastern South America
6660-4880 BC [15] Brazilian glyptodont Hoplophorus euphractusEastern BrazilUndetermined. [15]
Stout-legged llama Palaeolama majorNorth and east South AmericaHunting. [18]
Eastern giant armadillo Propraopus sulcatusEastern South America [48] Undetermined. [15]
6389-6060 BC Pampean giant armadillo Eutatus seguiniNorthern Argentina and Uruguay [49] Undetermined. [50]
6150-5750 BC [51] Yukon horse Equus lambeiEastern Beringia Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period. [37] [29]
6130-3950 BC Giant hartebeest Megalotragus priscusSouthern Africa;
Eastern Africa?
6050-5050 BC [27] Dire wolf Aenocyon dirusNorth America and western South AmericaCompetition with the gray wolf. [11]

6th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
5941-5596 BC Kambuaya's triok Dactylopsila kambuayai New Guinea Undetermined. [15]
New Guinea greater glider Petauroides ayamaruensis
5790-5658 BC Beringian wolf Canis lupusNorthwestern North AmericaPrey loss. [52] The eastern wolf, a descendant hybridized with coyotes, survives. [53]
5740-5500 BC Bond's springbok Antidorcas bondiSouthern AfricaReduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period. [29]
5660-5540 BC [54] Narrow-headed ground sloth Scelidotherium leptocephalumSouthern South AmericaHunting? [11]
5550 BC Sardinian giant deer Praemegaceros caziotiCorsica and Sardinia [55] Undetermined. [56]
5483-5221 BCUnnamed South African caprine ?Makapania sp. South African mountainsReduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period. [29]
5295-4848 BC Ibiza rail Rallus eivissensis Ibiza, SpainUndetermined, but presumably a result of human colonization. [57]
5271-5131 BC [58] Ancient bison Bison antiquusNorth AmericaPossibly hybridisation with western bison resulting in modern American bison. [27]
5270-4310 BC [59] Giant ground sloth Megatherium americanumTemperate South America and the AndesHunting. [18]
5120 BC Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis Southern South AmericaUndetermined. [60]

5th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
4901-4831 BC [61] Irish elk Megaloceros giganteusEurope and southern SiberiaReduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period, and possibly hunting. [62]
4855-4733 BC North African horse Equus algericus Maghreb Aridification. [29]
4840-4690 BC Majorcan giant dormouse Hypnomys morpheus Mallorca, SpainPossibly disease spread by introduced rodents. [63]
4765-4445 BC [59] [64] Club-tailed glyptodont [50] Doedicurus clavicaudatusSouth American Pampas Undetermined.
4691-4059 BC Algerian giant deer Megaceroides algericusNorthern MaghrebPossibly habitat fragmentation. [65]
4650-1450 BC [15] Toxodont Toxodon platensisSouth AmericaUndetermined.
4570 BC - 130 CE [66] Jamaican caracara Caracara tellustris Jamaica
4170-4050 BC [67] Lowland gomphothere Notiomastodon platensisSouth AmericaHunting? [11]
c. 4000 BC North African aurochs Bos primigenius africanus North Africa Aridification. Domestic descendants survive in captivity. [29]
North African zebra Equus mauritanicusAridification. [29]

4th millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
3570-3630 BC [68] Malagasy crowned eagle Stephanoaetus maheryCentral and southern MadagascarPossibly natural aridification or habitat degradation and prey loss caused by human activity. [69]
3540-3355 BC [70] Kauaʻi mole duck Talpanas lippa Kaua'i, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined.
3340-2890 BC [71] Radofilao's sloth lemur Babakotia radofilaiNorthern coast of Madagascar
3290-2730 BC [5] Smaller Cuban ground sloth Parocnus browniiCubaHunting. [7]
3060-2470 BC Giant long-horned buffalo Syncerus antiquusAfrica and the Arabian Peninsula [72] Aridification and competition with domestic cattle for water and pastures. [15]
3050 BC [23] Sardinian shrew Asoriculus similisSardinia, ItalyUndetermined.
Buka Island mosaic-tailed rat Melomys spechti Buka Island, Papua New Guinea
Buka Island solomys Solomys spriggsarum
3040-1840 BC [73] Tilos dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon tiliensis Tilos, Greece
3030-2690 BC Balearic giant shrew Nesiotites hidalgo Gymnesian Islands, SpainPossibly disease spread by introduced rodents. [63]

3rd millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
2830-2470 BC Balearic cave goat Myotragus balearicusGymnesian Islands, SpainLikely vegetation changes related to aridification or human activity. [74] [75]
2550 BC Bennu heron Ardea bennuidesArabian Peninsula Wetland degradation. [15]
2550-2450 BC [76] Steppe bison Bison priscusNorthern Eurasia and North AmericaHunting [77] and habitat loss due to climate change. [37]
2550-1550 BC [15] Niue night heron Nycticorax kalavikai Niue Undetermined.
2508-2116 BC [78] Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensisHispaniola
2483-2399 BC [5] Lesser Haitian ground sloth Neocnus comes
2280-2240 BC [79] Cuban giant sloth Megalocnus rodensCuba
8134-1408 BC [15] [80] Chatham raven Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands, New Zealand

2nd millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
1950-1050 BC [81] New Caledonian terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus inexpectatus Grande Terre and Isle of Pines, New CaledoniaHunting.
1935-1700 BCSumba Island giant ratRaksasamys tikusbesar Sumba Island, Indonesia Undetermined. [23]
1900-1600 BC Noel's barn owl Tyto noeliCuba, Jamaica, and Bermuda Undetermined. [82]
1800 BC Indian aurochs Bos primigenius namadicus Indian Subcontinent Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity and as feral populations. [83]
1795-1675 BC [84] [85] [86] [87] Woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigeniusNorthern Eurasia and North AmericaHunting [88] and habitat loss due to climate change. [37]
1750-1650 BC [89] Short-horned water buffalo Bubalus mephistopheles South, central, and east China [50] Undetermined.
1738-1500 BC [15] Puerto Rican ground sloth Acratocnus odontrigonus Puerto Rico
1738-1385 BC [15] Christensen's pademelon Thylogale christenseniNew Guinea
1581 BC [90] Hawaiian eagle Haliaeetus sp.Hawaii, United StatesPossibly deforestation, loss of prey, and predation of chicks by introduced rats and pigs. [69]
1500 BC New Caledonian giant megapode Sylviornis neocaledoniaeGrande Terre and Isle of Pines, New CaledoniaHunting. [91]
c. 1500 BC Puerto Rican flower bat Phyllonycteris majorPuerto Rico and Antigua Undetermined. [92]
Leeward Islands curlytail Leiocephalus cuneus Antigua and Barbuda
1294-1035 BC European wild ass Equus hydruntinus Southern Europe and Southwest Asia; Northern Europe (Pleistocene)Hunting and habitat fragmentation after the end of the Last Glacial Period. [93]
1159-790 BC Dune shearwater Puffinus holeae Canary Islands, Spain;
mainland Portugal (Pleistocene)
Predation by introduced house mice. [94]
c. 1050 BC [14] Mona Island tortoise Chelonoidis monensis Mona Island of Puerto RicoUndetermined.
1050 BC [23] Alor Island giant ratAlormys aplini Alor Island, Indonesia
Hooijer's giant ratHooijeromys nusantenggara Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Vanuatu terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus kalpokasi Efate, Vanuatu Hunting. [81]
Verhoeven's giant tree rat Papagomys theodorverhoeveni Flores, IndonesiaUndetermined.

1st millennium BC

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
c. 950 BC Noble megapode Megavitiornis altirostris Fiji Hunting. [95]
Fiji giant iguana Lapitiguana impensa
Fiji terrestrial crocodile Volia athollandersoni
900-750 BC Tongan tooth-billed pigeon Didunculus placopedetes Tonga Undetermined. [15]
821-171 BC Balsam shrew Crocidura balsamifera Nile gallery forests, Egypt Habitat destruction. [15]
820-680 BC Eurasian muskox Ovibos moschatus [96] Northern EurasiaHunting. [77] The same species survived in North America and was reintroduced to Eurasia in the 20th century. [97]
c. 810 BC [14] Vanuatu horned turtle ?Meiolania damelipiVanuatu and Viti Levu, FijiHunting. [98]
800-700 BC Syrian elephant Elephas maximus asurus Mesopotamia Hunting and habitat loss due to agriculture and aridification. However, it's been suggested that it was introduced by humans in the area, which would not make it a valid subspecies. [99]
790-410 BC MacPhee's shrew tenrec Microgale macpheeiSoutheastern MadagascarAridification. [100]
787-320 BC Jamaican ibis Xenicibis xympithecusJamaicaUndetermined. [15]
770-400 BC Law's diving-goose Chendytes lawiCoastal California and Oregon, United StatesHunting. [101] [102]
760-660 BC Consumed scrubfowl Megapodius alimentumTonga and Fiji
744-202 BC Kaua'i stilt-owl Grallistrix aucepsKaua'i, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined. [15]
701-119 BC [103] Chatham coot Fulica chathamensisChatham Islands, New ZealandProbably hunting and predation by introduced mammals. [69]
700-400 BC Bahaman caracara Caracara creightoniCuba and Bahamas Undetermined. [104]
550-50 BC [15] David's imperial pigeon Ducula david Ouvéa Island, New CaledoniaHunting. [69]
511-407 BC Plate-toothed giant hutia Elasmodontomys obliquusPuerto RicoUndetermined. [105]
440-280 BC [106] Lena horse Equus lenensisNorthern SiberiaHunting. [77] [107]
412-199 BC [71] Gorilla lemur Archaeoindris fontoynontiiCentral Madagascar
404 BC [108] Wild dromedary camel Camelus dromedariusArabian PeninsulaDesertification, hunting, and capture to replenish domestic herds. Domestic and feral descendants survive. [109]
c. 350 BC Tongan giant iguana Brachylophus gibbonsiTonga and FijiHunting. [102] [110]
348 BC - 283 BC Corsican giant shrew Asoriculus corsicanusCorsica, FranceIntroduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss. [111]
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardusCorsica and SardiniaHunting, predation and competition with introduced mammals. [112] [113]
Hensel's field mouse Rhagamys orthodonIntroduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss. [111]
Tyrrhenian vole Tyrrhenicola henseli
c. 240 BC Imperial gibbon Junzi imperialis Shaanxi?, ChinaPossibly capture as pets and deforestation. [114]
170 BC - 370 CE [115] Maui flightless ibis Apteribis brevis Maui, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined.
130 BC Gran Canaria giant rat Canariomys tamarani Gran Canaria, Canary IslandsHunting or predation by introduced dogs? [116]
110 BC - 130 BC [71] Ancient coua Coua primaevaMadagascarUndetermined.
50 BC [23] Buhler's coryphomys Coryphomys buehleri Timor
Timor giant rat Coryphomys musseri
49 BC - 125 BC São Miguel scops owl Otus frutuosoi São Miguel Island, Azores, PortugalIntroduced predators? [117]

1st millennium CE

1st–5th centuries

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
1-1000 [118] Eyles's harrier Circus teauteensisNew ZealandPrey loss and habitat alteration. [69] [119]
South Island goose Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island, New ZealandUndetermined. [120]
54-68 Silphium ?Ferula sp. Cyrenaica coastAridification, overgrazing, and overharvesting. [121]
86-428 [15] Powerful goshawk Accipiter efficaxNew CaledoniaUndetermined.
Gracile goshawk Accipiter quartus
Kanaka pigeon Caloenas canacorumNew Caledonia and Tonga; Vanuatu and Fiji?Probably hunting. [69]
Pile-builder megapode Megapodius molistructorNew Caledonia and TongaUndetermined.
New Caledonian ground dove Pampusana longitarsusNew Caledonia
New Caledonian gallinule [122] Porphyrio kukwiedei
210 [123] Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelaeaMadagascar
220 [124] Western bison Bison occidentalis Alaska and Yukon
245-429 [71] Ball-headed sloth lemur Mesopropithecus globicepsSouthwestern MadagascarHunting and aridification. [107]
c. 300 Atlas wild ass Equus africanus atlanticusNorth AfricaUndetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity. [125]
300-1200 [15] Marquesas cuckoo-dove Macropygia heana Nuku Hiva and Ua Huka, Marquesas IslandsUndetermined.
347-535 [15] New Ireland forest rat Rattus sanila New Ireland, Papua New Guinea
370 [126] North African elephant Loxodonta africana pharaoensis Northwest Africa Hunting and aridification. [127]
428-618 [71] Southern Malagasy giant rat Hypogeomys australisCentral and southern MadagascarUndetermined.
439-1473 [78] Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregoriJamaica
440-639 [15] Oʻahu moa-nalo Thambetochen xanion Oahu, Hawaii, United States
448-657 [128] Chatham duck Pachyanas chathamicaChatham Islands, New ZealandHunting? [15]
c. 450 New Caledonian horned turtle Meiolania mackayiNew CaledoniaHunting. [129]

6th–10th centuries

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
530-590 Cuban spectacled owl Pulsatrix arredondoiCubaUndetermined. [82]
530-860 [71] Malagasy shelduck Alopochen sirabensisMadagascarPossibly hunting and aridification. [69]
535-876 [50] Large baboon lemur Hadropithecus stenognathusCentral and southern MadagascarHunting and aridification. [107]
586-670 Horned crocodile Voay robustusMadagascarPossibly overexploitation of eggs for consumption, environmental changes (natural or caused by human activity), and competition with the Nile crocodile. [130]
600-765 [50] Monkey-like sloth lemur Mesopropithecus pithecoidesCentral MadagascarHunting and aridification. [107]
650-780 [71] Forsyth Major's baboon lemur Archaeolemur majoriMadagascar
650-869 Small O'ahu crake Porzana ziegleriOahu, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined. [15]
664-773 Hildebrandt's elephant bird Aepyornis hildebrandtiCentral MadagascarDeforestation. [131]
666-857 [132] Cayman Islands geocapromys Geocapromys caymanensis Cayman Islands Undetermined.
Cayman Islands nesophontes Nesophontes hemicingulus
670-836 Malagasy dwarf hippopotamus Hippopotamus lemerleiSouthwestern Madagascar [133] Deforestation, [131] hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock. [107]
680-880 [131] Lesser elephant bird Mullerornis modestusCentral and southern MadagascarHunting, aridification, [107] and deforestation. [131]
687-880 Malagasy pygmy hippopotamus Hippopotamus madagascariensisNorthwestern and central Madagascar [133] Deforestation, [131] hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock. [107]
700-1150 [15] Huahine starling Aplonis diluvialis Huahine, Society Islands, French PolynesiaUndetermined.
Huahine gull Chroicocephalus utunui
Huahine rail Gallirallus storrsolsoniPossibly hunting and predation by introduced animals. [69]
Huahine cuckoo-dove Macropygia arevarevauupaUndetermined.
Huahine swamphen Porphyrio mcnabiPossibly hunting and introduced predators. [69]
760 Cuban cave rail Nesotrochis picapicensisCubaUndetermined. [82]
771-952 Titan elephant bird Vorombe titanCentral and southern MadagascarDeforestation. [131]
772-870 Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulansPuerto RicoUndetermined. [105]
810-1025 Sinoto's lorikeet Vini sinotoiMarquesas and Society Islands, French PolynesiaHunting. [134]
Conquered lorikeet Vini vidiviciMarquesas, Society, and Cook Islands
865-965 Malagasy aardvark Plesiorycteropus madagascariensisCentral and southern MadagascarUndetermined. [11]
c. 884 [14] Grandidier's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys grandidieriMadagascarHunting and aridification. [107]
890-990 [50] Southern giant ruffed lemur Pachylemur insignisSouthwestern Madagascar
900-1150 Giant aye-aye Daubentonia robustaSouthern MadagascarHunting, expansion of grasses and deforestation caused by domestic cattle and goat grazing. [107]
c. 950 Giant island deer mouse Peromyscus nesodytesChannel Islands of California, United StatesPossibly habitat loss through overgrazing and erosion. [135]
980-1170 Grandidier's koala lemur Megaladapis grandidieriMadagascarHunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock. [107]

2nd millennium CE

11th-12th century

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
c. 1000 North Island adzebill Aptornis otidiformis North Island, New ZealandHunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats. [69]
1000-1600 [15] Henderson archaic pigeon Bountyphaps obsoleta Henderson Island, PitcairnUndetermined.
Henderson imperial pigeon Ducula harrisoniProbably hunting and predation by introduced animals. [69]
Henderson ground dove Pampusana leonpascoiUndetermined.
1015-1147 [105] Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithaePuerto Rico
1020-1260 Lava shearwater Puffinus olsoni Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary IslandsPredation by introduced black rats and cats. [136]
1040-1380 [69] [137] Giant elephant bird Aepyornis maximusSouthern MadagascarHunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock. [107]
1046-1380 [15] Nēnē-nui Branta hylobadistesOahu, Hawaii, United StatesProbably hunting or introduced predators. [69]
1047-1280 [71] Edwards' baboon lemur Archaeolemur edwardsiCentral Madagascar [138] Hunting and changes to vegetation caused by livestock. [107]
1057-1375 [15] Maui Nui moa-nalo Thambetochen chauliodous Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined.
1057-1440 [15] Maui stilt-owl Grallistrix erdmaniMaui, Hawaii, United States
1059-1401 New Zealand swan Cygnus sumnerensis/chathamicusNew Zealand? and the Chatham IslandsHunting. [15] It was suggested that the material from the main islands is conspecific with the extant black swan, while that from the Chathams represents a truly different, extinct species. [69]
1100-1300 Tenerife giant rat Canariomys bravoi Tenerife, Canary Islands, SpainHunting. [139]
1170 [140] Bahaman tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorumBahamasUndetermined.
1173-1385 [15] Barbuda giant rice rat Megalomys audreyaeBarbuda
1175-1295 [141] Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrusHispaniola
1183 New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiaeNew ZealandPredation by introduced Polynesian rats. [142]

13th-14th century

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeCauses
c. 1200 [14] Abrupt giant tortoise Aldabrachelys abruptaMadagascarHunting and aridification. [107]
Ua Huka booby Papasula abbotti costelloi Marquesas Islands, French PolynesiaHunting and possibly also deforestation. [69]
1200-1600 Chatham kaka Nestor chathamensisChatham Islands, New ZealandProbably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced Polynesian rats. [69]
1206-1427 [50] Common koala lemur Megaladapis madagascariensisMadagascarHunting. [107]
1234-1445 [118] South Island adzebill Aptornis defossorSouth Island, New ZealandHunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats. [69]
1265-1400 St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrusHispaniolaUndetermined. [141]
1270 Lava mouse Malpaisomys insularisLanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary IslandsPossibly disease spread by introduced rats. [143]
1278-1415 Mantell's moa Pachyornis geranoidesNorth Island, New ZealandHunting. [15] [144]
1286-1390 North Island giant moa Dinornis novaezelandiae
1292-1630 Chinese gharial Hanyusuchus sinensis South China and Hainan Extermination campaign. [145]
1294-1438 Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopusEastern South Island, New ZealandHunting. [146]
1295-1430 [141] [15] Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrusCubaUndetermined.
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrusHispaniola
c. 1300 [69] Tabuai railHypotaenidia steadmaniTabuai, Austral Islands, French Polynesia
After 1300 Chatham penguin [147] Eudyptes warhamiNew ZealandHunting. [148] [146]
Dwarf yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes richdalei
1300-1422 Upland moa Megalapteryx didinusSouth Island, New Zealand
1300-1430 Edwards' koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsiMadagascarHunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock. [107]
1300-1800 Eua rail Hypotaenidia vekamatolu Eua, TongaUndetermined. [69]
1310-1420 Bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformisNew ZealandHunting. [146] [149]
1320-1350 [149] Eastern moa Emeus crassusSouth Island, New Zealand
Haast's eagle [150] Hieraaetus mooreiDeforestation and loss of prey. Possibly also predation of nests by introduced pigs and rats. [69]
1320-1630 Southern sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingensSouthwestern MadagascarHunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock. [107]
1320-1380 Hispaniola woodcock Scolopax brachycarpaHispaniolaUndetermined. [151]
1347-1529 Waitaha penguin Megadyptes waitahaCoastal South Island, New ZealandHunting. [152]
1350 Scarlett's shearwater Puffinus spelaeusWestern South Island, New ZealandPredation by Polynesian rats. [136]
1380-1500 [153] Giant Hawaii goose Branta rhuax Hawai'i, Hawaii, United StatesProbably hunting. [69]
1390-1470 Great ground dove Pampusana nuiFrench Polynesia and Cook IslandsUndetermined. [15]
1396-1442 Crested moa Pachyornis australis Subalpine South Island, New ZealandHunting. [146]

15th-16th century

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1400-1450Pico railRallus montivagorum Pico Island, Açores, PortugalUndetermined. [69]
1400-1500 Tenerife giant lizard Gallotia goliathTenerife and La Palma, Canary IslandsHunting. [139]
1425-1660 Kauaʻi finch Telespiza persecutrixKaua'i and Oahu, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined. [15]
1451-1952 [146]
(1558-1728) [154]
South Island giant moa Dinornis robustusSouth Island, New ZealandHunting. [146]
1454-1626 [155] South American wolf Dusicyon avusArgentina and Uruguay2015 (IUCN)Possibly climate change, hunting, and competition with domestic dogs. [156]
1460-1660 Dwarf thick-knee Burhinus nanusBahamasUndetermined. [157]
1464-1637 [146]
(1542-1618) [158]
Broad-billed moa Euryapteryx curtusNorth, South, and Stewart Island of New ZealandHunting. [146]
1500-1600 Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschiNew Zealand2014 (IUCN)Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats. [159]
1502 Olson's petrel Bulweria bifax Saint Helena 1988 (IUCN)Hunting and introduced predators? [160]
1503 Vespucci's giant rat Noronhomys vespucii Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil2008 (IUCN)Undetermined. [161]
1520-1950 [15] Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, EcuadorPossibly introduced predators. [162]
1525 Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensisHispaniola and Gonâve;
Introduced to Puerto Rico, Mona, and U.S. Virgin Islands
1994-2008 (IUCN)Possibly predation by introduced black rats. [163]
1525-1625 [5] Cayman Islands hutia Capromys sp.Cayman IslandsPossibly hunting, introduced predators, and habitat loss caused by introduced ungulates. [132]
1550-1670 [5] Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratusHispaniola1994 (IUCN)Introduced rats. [164]
1555 Ascension night heron Nycticorax olsoni Ascension Island Probably predation by introduced cats and rats. [69]

17th century

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1600 Mauritian giant skink Leiolopisma mauritiana Mauritius 2021 (IUCN)Probably introduced predators. [165] [166]
1600-1700 Hoffstetter's worm snake Madatyphlops cariei1994 (IUCN)
Hodgens's waterhen Tribonyx hodgenorumNew Zealand2014 (IUCN)Hunting and predation by Polynesian rats. [167]
1601? Rodrigues blue pigeon Alectroenas payandeei Rodrigues Possibly predation by introduced rats. [69]
1602 Mauritius white-throated rail Dryolimnas sp.Mauritius1638Hunting and predation by introduced mammals. [69]
1603 Bermuda hawk Bermuteo avivorusBermuda2014 (IUCN)Possibly hunting and predation by introduced feral pigs and other animals. [168]
1609-1610 Bermuda saw-whet owl Aegolius gradyi1623
2014 (IUCN) [169]
Habitat destruction and introduced predators. [69]
Bermuda towhee Pipilio naufragusUndetermined. [69]
1610 Bermuda night heron Nyctanassa carcinocatactes2014 (IUCN)Possibly hunting and introduced predators. [170]
1623 Bermuda flicker Colaptes oceanicus2014 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced cats. [69]
1627 [171] Eurasian aurochs Bos primigenius primigenius Mid-latitude Eurasia2008 (IUCN)Hunting, competition with, and diseases from domestic cattle. Domestic descendants survive worldwide, including feral populations. [172]
c. 1640 [173] Saint Helena rail Aphanocrex podarcesSaint Helena1988 (IUCN)Probably hunting [174] and predation by introduced cats, rats, and other mammals. [173]
Saint Helena cuckoo Nannococcyx psixPossibly deforestation. [173]
Saint Helena petrel Pterodroma rupinarumProbably deforestation and introduced mammals. [69]
Saint Helena hoopoe Upupa antaiosPossibly hunting and introduced predators. [175]
Saint Helena crake Zapornia astrictocarpusProbably introduced predators. [176]
1656 Ascension crake Mundia elpenorAscension IslandPossibly introduction of rats and cats, although it is not attested by the time they arrived in the 18th and 19th centuries. [177]
1670-1950 [71] [178] Larger Malagasy hippopotamus Hippopotamus laloumenaEastern MadagascarIncreased human and cattle pressure after the introduction of prickly pear farming. [107] Its specific separation from the common hippopotamus has been questioned. [179]
1671-1672 Réunion blue pigeon Alectroenas sp. Réunion 1704Probably hunting and predation by introduced cats. [69]
Réunion sheldgoose Alopochen kervazoi1710
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat destruction. [180]
Réunion kestrel Falco duboisi2004 (IUCN)Undetermined. [181]
1672 [69] Réunion fody Foudia delloni2016 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced rats. [182]
1673-1675 Broad-billed parrot Lophopsittacus mauritianusMauritius1693
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting. [183]
1674 Réunion rail Dryolimnas augustiRéunion2014 (IUCN)Probably hunting and introduced rats and cats. [184]
Réunion pigeon Nesoenas duboisi1988 (IUCN)Probably introduced rats and cats. [185]
Réunion night heron Nycticorax duboisiHunting. [186]
1675-1755 Giant vampire bat Desmodus draculaeEastern South America;
Central America (Pleistocene) [187]
Undetermined. [188]
1688 Dodo Raphus cucullatusMauritius1988 (IUCN)Hunting. [189] [190]
1693 Mauritius sheldgoose Alopochen mauritiana1698
1988 (IUCN)
Red rail Aphanapteryx bonasia1988 (IUCN)Hunting and predation by introduced cats. [191]
Mascarene coot [192] Fulica newtoniiMauritius and RéunionHunting. [193]
Mauritius night heron Nycticorax mauritianusMauritiusProbably hunting. [194]
1696 Mascarene teal Anas theodoriMauritius; Réunion?Hunting. [195]

18th century

Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1700-1800 Imber's petrel Pterodroma imberiChatham Islands, New ZealandHunting and predation by introduced cats. [69]
1705 Mascarene reed cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus nanusMauritius and RéunionProbably hunting and predation by introduced cats. [69]
1724 Guadeloupe parakeet Psittacara labati Guadeloupe 1988 (IUCN)Probably hunting. [196]
1725-1726 Rodrigues petrel Pterodroma sp.RodriguesPredation by introduced cats and rats. [69]
1726 Rodrigues rail Erythromachus leguati1988 (IUCN)Hunting. [197]
Rodrigues owl Mascarenotus murivorusProbably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced animals. [198]
Rodrigues starling Necropsar rodericanus1761
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined. [199]
Rodrigues pigeon Nesoenas rodericanus1988 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced black rats. [200]
Rodrigues night heron Nycticorax megacephalus1761
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting. [201]
c. 1730 Mauritius wood pigeon Columba thiriouxiMauritius2014 (IUCN)Hunting, predation by introduced black rats, and deforestation. [69]
Mauritius turtle dove Nesoenas cicurHunting, predation by introduced mammals, and deforestation. [69]
Réunion swamphen Porphyrio caerulescensRéunion1988 (IUCN)Hunting. [202]
c. 1735-1844? [14] [203] Saddle-backed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis ineptaMauritius1994 (IUCN)Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors. [204] [205]
Domed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis triserrata
1742 [206] Lesser Antillean macaw Ara guadeloupensisGuadeloupeUndetermined. [69]
1746 Corynanthe brachythyrsus Cameroon 1998 (IUCN)Undetermined. [207]
1760 [208] Atlantic gray whale Eschrichtius robustus North Atlantic and the Mediterranean 2007 (IUCN) Whaling. The same species survives in the Pacific Ocean. [209]
1761 Rodrigues parrot Necropsittacus rodricanusRodrigues1988 (IUCN)Hunting. [210]
Rodrigues solitaire Pezophaps solitaria1778
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced cats. [211]
1762-1763 Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas Bering Sea; Northern Pacific coasts from Japan to Baja California (Pleistocene)1768
1986 (IUCN)
Hunting and reduction of kelp as a result of sea otter hunting, which caused proliferation of kelp-eating sea urchins. [212]
1763 Réunion ibis Threskiornis solitariusRéunion1988 (IUCN)Hunting. [213] [214] [69]
1764 Mauritius grey parrot Lophopsittacus bensoniMauritius and Réunion
1770 Seychelles purple swamphen Porphyrio sp. Mahé, Seychelles
1773 Raiatea parakeet Cyanoramphus ulietanus Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN)Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species. [215]
1774 Tanna ground dove Alopecoenas ferrugineus Tanna, VanuatuHunting? [216]
Raiatea starling ?Aplonis ulietensisRaiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia1850
2016 (IUCN)
Possibly predation by introduced rats. [217]
1777 Tongatapu rail Hypotaenidia hypoleucus Tongatapu, TongaUndetermined. [69]
Moorea sandpiper Prosobonia ellisi Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia1988 (IUCN)Predation by introduced rats. [218] [219]
Tahiti sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia
1779 Martinique amazon Amazona martinicana Martinique Probably hunting. [220]
Guadeloupe amazon Amazona violaceaGuadeloupeHunting. [221]
1784 Tahiti crake Zapornia nigraTahiti, Society Islands, French PolynesiaPossibly introduced predators. [222]
1790 White swamphen Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Island, Australia1834
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting. [223]
1793 Amsterdam wigeon Mareca marecula Amsterdam Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 1874
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced rats. [69]
Oceanic eclectus parrot Eclectus infectusTonga and Vanuatu; Fiji?2014 (IUCN)Probably hunting and predation by introduced mammals. [224]
Vava'u rail Hypotaenidia sp. Vava'u, TongaPossibly habitat destruction and introduced predators. [69]
1799-1800 Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus Overberg;
South Africa (Pleistocene)
1986 (IUCN) [225] Vegetation change and disruption of migration routes after the Last Glacial Period, competition with domestic cattle, overhunting, and further habitat loss due to agriculture. [29]

19th century


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1800 [14] Domed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis peltastesRodrigues1994 (IUCN)Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors. [226] [227]
Saddle-backed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis vosmaeri
19th centurySooty crayfish Pacifastacus nigrescens San Francisco Bay, California, United States2010Invasive fish and crayfish species, and urban development [228]
1802 Smooth handfish Sympterichthys unipennisSoutheastern Tasmania?2020 (IUCN)Fishing? [229]
1806 Wynberg conebush Leucadendron grandiflorum Cape Peninsula, South AfricaProbably habitat destruction. [230]
1807 St. Paul Island duck Mareca sp. Île Saint-Paul, French Southern and Antarctic LandsHunting. [69]
1819 [231] Kangaroo Island emu Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island, Australia1837
1988 (IUCN) [232]
1822 [233] King Island emu Dromaius minor King Island, Australia1988 (IUCN)
1823 Spotted green pigeon Caloenas maculataTahiti, French Polynesia?2008 (IUCN)Hunting? [234]
Madeira finchGoniaphea leucocephala Madeira, Portugal1853Undetermined. [69]
Maupiti monarch Pomarea pomarea Maupiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia1988 (IUCN)Probably introduced species. [235]
1825 Mysterious starling Aplonis mavornata Mauke, Cook Islands Predation by introduced brown rats. [236]
ʻĀmaui Myadestes woahensisOahu, Hawaii, United StatesPossibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria. [237]
1826 [238] Mauritius blue pigeon Alectroenas nitidissimusMauritiusDeforestation. [69]
1827-1828 Kosrae crake Zapornia monasa Kosrae, Micronesia Predation by introduced rats. [239]
1828 Kosrae starling Aplonis corvina1880
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced rats. [240]
Bonin grosbeak Carpodacus ferreorostris Bonin Islands, Japan1854
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats. [241]
Bonin thrush Zoothera terrestris1889
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced cats and rats. [242]
c. 1829 [243] Tonga ground skink Tachygyia microlepisTonga1996 (IUCN) Habitat loss and predation by introduced dogs, pigs, and rats. [244]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1834 Delalande's coua Coua delalandei Nosy Boraha, Madagascar1994 (IUCN)Deforestation. [245]
Mascarene parrot [246] Mascarinus mascarinRéunion1804 (wild)
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting. [247]
Atlas bear Ursus arctos crowtheriNorthern MaghrebPossibly habitat fragmentation. [248] Two haplotypes are found in remains from the Vandal and Byzantine periods: one shared with Iberian bears that could have been introduced by humans, and another unique to Africa. [249] It is not known which type survived until more recent times.
1835 Darwin's large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris Floreana and San Cristóbal, Galápagos Islands1838Habitat destruction and introduced predators. [69]
1837 Oʻahu ʻakialoa Akialoa ellisiana [250] Oahu, Hawaii, United States2016 (IUCN)Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease. [251]
Hoopoe starling Fregilupus variusRéunion1988 (IUCN)Possibly introduced disease, hunting, and habitat degradation. [252]
Oʻahu ʻōʻō Moho apicalisOahu, Hawaii, United States1890
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and introduction of disease-carrying mosquitos. [253]
Mauritius owl Mascarenotus sauzieriMauritius1859
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced mammals. [254]
1838-1841 [255] Oʻahu nukupuʻu Hemignathus lucidusOahu, Hawaii, United States1890Undetermined.
1839 Réunion slit-eared skink Gongylomorphus borbonicusRéunionProbably predation by introduced snakes. [256]
1839-1841 Large Samoan flying fox Pteropus coxi Samoan Islands 2020 (IUCN) [257] Undetermined.
c. 1840 [14] Réunion giant tortoise Cylindraspis indicaRéunion1994 (IUCN) [258]
1840 Dieffenbach's Rail Hypotaenidia dieffenbachiiChatham Islands, New Zealand1872
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly introduced predators and habitat loss from fire. [259]
1842 Rodrigues giant day gecko Phelsuma gigasRodrigues1874Possibly introduced Norway rats. [256]
1844 Black-fronted parakeet Cyanorhamphus zealandicusTahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia1988 (IUCN)Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species. [260]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1850 Daudin's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys gigantea daudiniiMahé, SeychellesUndetermined. [14]
Floreana giant tortoise Chelonoidis nigerFloreana, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador1996 (IUCN)Probably hunting and introduced species. Hybrid descendants of C. niger and C. becki survive in nearby Isabela Island. [261]
Southern black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis bicornisSouthwestern AfricaUndetermined. [262]
Christmas sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata Kiritimati, Kiribati2014 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced cats and rats. [263]
1850 Turquoise-throated puffleg Eriocnemis godiniNorthern EcuadorHabitat destruction. [264]
Spectacled cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Commander Islands, Russia; Northeast Japan (Pleistocene) [265] 1882
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting. [266]
1850-1875 [267] String tree Acalypha rubrinervisCentral ridge of St Helena island1998 (IUCN)Undetermined. [268]
1851 Belido Chitala lopisNorthwestern Java, Indonesia2020 (IUCN)Overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction for agriculture and urban development. [269]
Tasmanian emu Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensisTasmania, AustraliaHunting. [270]
Norfolk kaka [271] Nestor productus Norfolk Island, Australia1988 (IUCN)Hunting [272] and habitat destruction by introduced rabbits, pigs, and goats. [69]
Before 1852 Letitia's thorntail Discosura letitiae Bolivia Undetermined. [69]
1852 Great auk Pinguinus impennisNorth Atlantic and western Mediterranean1988 (IUCN)Hunting. [273] [69]
1853 Lord Howe pigeon Columba vitiensis godmanaeLord Howe Island, Australia
1856 Small Samoan flying fox Pteropus allenorum Upolu, Samoa2020 (IUCN)Undetermined. [274]
1859 Kioea Chaetoptila angustiplumaHawai'i, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Possibly deforestation, hunting, and introduced predators. [275]
c. 1860 [276] Sea mink Neovison macrodon Atlantic coast of Canada and New England 2002 (IUCN)Hunting for the fur trade. [277]
1860 Pseudoyersinia brevipennis Hyères, France2020 (IUCN) [278] Undetermined.
Gould's emerald Riccordia elegansJamaica?1988 (IUCN) [279]
Jamaican poorwill Siphonorhis americanaJamaicaPredation by introduced black rats, brown rats, and small Indian mongooses. [280]
1862 [281] Small Mauritian flying fox Pteropus subnigerMauritius and Réunion1988 (IUCN)Hunting and deforestation. [282]
1863 Mbashe River buff Deloneura immaculataEastern Cape Province, South Africa1994 (IUCN)Undetermined. [283]
1865 Cape lion Panthera leo melanochaitaCape Province, South AfricaExtermination campaign. [284] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation between the Cape lion and living lions in Eastern Africa; if placed in a single subspecies, it would be P. l. melanochaita because of being the older name. [285]
1866 [286] Siau scops owl Otus manadensis siaoensis Siau Island, IndonesiaDeforestation. [69]
1867 [287] Eastern elk Cervus canadensis canadensisEastern North America1880 [288] Hunting. It's been argued (based on genetic data) that most or all elk subspecies in North America are actually the same, which would be C. c. canadensis due to being named first. [289] [290]
1868 [291] Kawaihae hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus bombycinus Kawaihae, Hawaii, United States [292] 1998 (IUCN)Undetermined.
1869 Huahine warbler Acrocephalus musae garrettiHuahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia1921Possibly predation by introduced rats. [69]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1870 North Island snipe Coenocorypha barrierensisNorth Island, New Zealand2014 (IUCN)Predation by introduced Polynesian rats and feral cats. [293]
1870-1873 Raiatea warbler Acrocephalus musae musaeRaiatea, Society Islands, French PolynesiaUndetermined. [69]
1871 Spined dwarf mantis Ameles fasciipennis Tolentino, Italy2020 (IUCN)Possibly habitat loss to agriculture. [294]
Cape warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicusCape Province, South AfricaUndetermined. [295]
1873 Tristan moorhen [69] Gallinula nesiotis Tristan da Cunha 1988 (IUCN)Hunting, predation by introduced cats, rats, and pigs; and habitat destruction by fire. [296]
Samoan woodhen [297] Pareudiastes pacificus Savai'i, SamoaHunting and predation by introduced cats, rats, pigs, and dogs. [298]
Before 1874 Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus Palau 1988 (IUCN)Possibly hunting and habitat degradation. [299]
1874 Coues's gadwall Mareca strepera couesi Teraina, Line Islands, Kiribati1924Probably hunting and introduced predators. [69]
Percy Island flying fox Pteropus brunneus Percy Islands, Australia1996 (IUCN)Possibly habitat loss. [300]
1875 Newton's parakeet Alexandrinus exsulRodrigues1988 (IUCN)Probably habitat loss and hunting. The last pairs may have been killed by the 1876 cyclone season. [301]
North Island little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii iredaleiNorth Island, New ZealandHunting, habitat degradation, and predation by introduced mammals. [69]
Labrador duck [302] Camptorhynchus labradoriusAtlantic coast of Canada and New England1988 (IUCN)Hunting, egg harvesting, and habitat loss. [303]
New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandiaeNew ZealandIntroduced diseases? [304]
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops Western Australia 1982 (IUCN)Predation by feral cats and habitat loss. [305]
1876 Falkland Islands wolf Dusicyon australis Falkland Islands 1986 (IUCN)Extermination campaign. [306]
Kermadec megapode Megapodius sp. Raoul, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand Volcanic eruption. [69]
Himalayan quail [307] Ophrysia superciliosa Uttarakhand, IndiaHunting and habitat loss. [308]
1877 Brace's emerald Riccordia bracei New Providence, Bahamas1988 (IUCN)Undetermined. [309]
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarumJamaica2008 (IUCN)Competition with introduced rats, [78] or predation by introduced mongooses. [310]
1878 Navassa Island iguana Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Navassa Island 2011 (IUCN)Probably hunting. [311]
Antioquia brown-banded antpitta Grallaria milleri gilesiSanta Elena, Antioquia, ColombiaProbably deforestation. [69]
Madeiran land snail Leiostyla lamellosa Madeira, Portugal1996 (IUCN)Undetermined. [312]
Pseudocampylaea lowii Undetermined. [313]
1879 Macquarie Island banded rail Hypotaenidia philippensis macquariensisSouth Macquarie Island, Australia1894Predation by introduced cats, rats, weka, and overgrazing by introduced rabbits. [69]
Jamaican petrel [314] Pterodroma caribbaeaJamaica; Dominica and Guadeloupe?Hunting and predation by introduced rats, mongooses, pigs, and dogs. [315]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1880-1889? [316] Parras characodon Characodon garmaniSouthern Coahuila, Mexico1953 [317]
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss. [316]
c. 1881 Saint Lucia giant rice rat Megalomys luciae Saint Lucia 1994 (IUCN)Predation by introduced mongooses. [318]
1881 Jamaican wood rail Amaurolimnas concolor concolorJamaicaPossibly predation by introduced mongooses, cats, and rats. [69]
1883 [319] Quagga Equus quagga quaggaCape Province, South Africa1889 [320]
1986 (IUCN) [321]
1884 Hawaiian rail Zapornia sandwichensisEastern Hawai'i (and Molokai?), United States1988 (IUCN)Possibly hunting and predation by introduced rats, cats, and dogs. [322]
1886 Martinique house wren Troglodytes aedon martinicensisMartiniqueUndetermined. [69]
Bennett's seaweed Vanvoorstia bennettiana Port Jackson, Australia2003 (IUCN)Habitat loss and pollution. [323]
c. 1889 Hokkaido wolf Canis lupus hattai Hokkaido, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Iturup and Kunashir [324] Extermination campaign. [325] [ better source needed ]
1889 Cuban macaw Ara tricolorCuba and Juventud 2000 (IUCN)Hunting for food and the exotic pet trade. [69]
Bonin wood pigeon Columba versicolorBonin Islands, Japan1988 (IUCN)Deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats. [326]
Whiteline topminnow Fundulus albolineatus Huntsville, Alabama, United States1986 (IUCN)Habitat destruction. [316]
Eastern hare-wallaby Lagorchestes leporidesInterior southeastern Australia1982 (IUCN)Possibly habitat loss due to livestock grazing and wildfires. [327] [328]
Bonin nankeen night heron Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris Chichi-jima and Nakōdo-jima, Bonin Islands, JapanUndetermined. [69] [329]
Sturdee's pipistrelle Pipistrellus sturdeei Haha-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan1994 (IUCN)


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1890 [330] Portuguese ibex Capra pyrenaica lusitanicaPortuguese-Galician borderHunting.
1890 New Caledonian rail [331] Cabalus lafresnayanusNew CaledoniaProbably predation by introduced dogs, cats, pigs, and rats. [332]
Macquarie parakeet [333] Cyanoramphus erythrotisMacquarie Island, Australia1894Increased predation by introduced cats and weka after rabbits were introduced, boosting their numbers. [334]
Kauaʻi nukupuʻu [335] Hemignathus hanapepeKaua'i, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined.
1890-1899 New Zealand bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiaeNew Zealand1988 (IUCN) [336]
1891 Sulu bleeding-heart [337] Gallicolumba menagei Tawi-tawi, Sulu archipelago, PhilippinesPossibly deforestation and hunting. [69]
Raoul Island banded rail Hypotaenidia sp.Raoul, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand1944Predation by introduced cats or rats. [69]
Lesser koa finch Rhodacanthis flavicepsHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1893
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined. [338]
1892 Maui Nui ʻakialoa Akialoa lanaiensis Lana'i, Hawaii, United States2016 (IUCN)Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease. [339]
ʻUla-ʻai-hawane [340] Ciridops annaHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Undetermined. [341]
Nendo tube-nosed fruit bat [342] Nyctimene sanctacrucis Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands 1994 (IUCN)Undetermined. Could be conspecific with the Island tube-nosed fruit bat. [343]
St. Vincent pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent 2008 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced brown rats, black rats, and mongooses. [344]
Chatham fernbird Poodytes rufescensChatham Islands, New Zealand1988 (IUCN)Possibly habitat loss and predation by introduced cats. [345]
Puerto Rican parakeet Psittacara maugeiPuerto Rico and Mona IslandPossibly deforestation, hunting, and disease. [69]
Marianne white-eye Zosterops semiflavus Marianne Island, Seychelles1940
2016 (IUCN)
Deforestation, competition with introduced birds and predation by back rats. [69]
1893-1895 Chatham rail Cabalus modestusChatham Islands, New Zealand1988 (IUCN)Habitat destruction, predation and competition with introduced mammals. [346]
1893 Harelip sucker Lagochila laceraSoutheastern United States1986 (IUCN)Possibly water siltation and pollution. [316]
Seychelles parakeet Psittacula wardi Seychelles 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture. [347]
1894 Kona grosbeak Chloridops konaHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Undetermined. [348]
North Island takahē Porhyrio mantelliNorth Island, New Zealand2000 (IUCN)Climate-induced reduction of grasslands and hunting. [349]
1895 Hawkins's rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsiChatham Islands, New Zealand2005 (IUCN)Hunting. [350]
Lyall's wren Traversia lyalliNew Zealand1895
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and predation by introduced cats. [351]
1896 Greater koa finch Rhodacanthis palmeriHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1906
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria. [352]
Newfoundland wolf [353] Canis lupus beothucus Newfoundland, CanadaHunting. [354]
1896-1906 Madeiran wood pigeon Columba palumbus maderensisMadeira, Portugal1924Undetermined. [355]
1897 Martinique giant rice rat Megalomys desmarestiiMartinique1994 (IUCN)Predation by introduced mongooses. [356]
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoniCentral María Madre Island, Mexico1996 (IUCN)Competition with introduced black rats. [357]
Guadalupe towhee Pipilio maculatus consobrinus Guadalupe Island, Mexico1954Habitat destruction by introduced goats and predation by cats. [69]
Guadalupe wren Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda1906Habitat destruction by introduced goats. [69]
Stephens Island piopio Turnagra capensis minor Stephens Island, New Zealand 1898Predation by introduced cats. [69]
1899 Culebra Island amazon Amazona vittata gracilipes Culebra Island of Puerto Rico1912Deforestation and persecution by crop farmers. [69]
Hawaii mamo Drepanis pacificaHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Hunting, habitat destruction, and introduced disease. [358]

20th century


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1900 Caucasian moose Alces alces caucasicus Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasian shore of the Black Sea [359] Hunting. The subspecies' validity is questioned because moose from Russia recolonized the Caucasian moose's former range naturally over the 20th century. [360]
Saint Croix racer Borikenophis sanctaecrucis Saint Croix, United States Virgin Islands Undetermined. [361]
Gravenche Coregonus hiemalis Lake Geneva 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing. [362]
c. 1900-1950 Lord Howe long-eared bat Nyctophilus howensisLord Howe Island, Australia2020 (IUCN)Possibly predation by introduced owls and rats. [363]
1900 Leafshell Epioblasma flexuosa Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio River systems, United States1983 (IUCN)Undetermined. [364]
1901 Car Nicobar sparrowhawk [365] Accipiter butleri butleri Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands 1995Habitat destruction. [69]
Southern pig-footed bandicoot [366] Chaeropus ecaudatusInterior Australia1982 (IUCN)Predation by feral cats and red foxes. [367]
Tennessee riffleshell Epioblasma propinquaTennessee, Cumberland, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States1983 (IUCN)Undetermined. [368]
Greater ʻamakihi Viridonia sagittirostris Wailuku river, Hawai'i Island, United States1988 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for sugarcane agriculture. [369]
1902 Rocky Mountain locust Melanoplus spretusRocky Mountains and North American Prairie 2014 (IUCN) [370] Breeding habitat loss due to irrigation and cattle ranching.
Auckland merganser Mergus australisSouth, Stewart, and Auckland Island, New Zealand1910
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced animals. [371]
North Island piopio [372] Turnagra tanagraNorth Island, New Zealand1988 (IUCN)Possibly habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats. [373]
1903 Guadalupe caracara Caracara lutosaGuadalupe Island, MexicoExtermination campaign. [374]
Stumptooth minnow Stypodon signiferSouthern Coahuila, Mexico1983 (IUCN)Habitat degradation and pollution. [316]
1904 Choiseul pigeon Microgoura meeki Choiseul, Solomon Islands1994 (IUCN)Predation by feral dogs and cats. [375]
1905 Japanese wolf [376] [377] [378] Canis lupus hodophilax Honshū, Shikoku and Kyūshū, JapanHunting and a rabies-like epidemic. [325]
South Island piopio [379] Turnagra capensisSouth Island, New Zealand1988 (IUCN)Possibly habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats. [380]
1906 Chatham bellbird Anthornis melanocephalaChatham Islands, New Zealand1938
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction, predation by rats and cats, and overhunting by collectionists. [381]
Guadalupe flicker Colaptes auratus rufipileusGuadalupe Island, Mexico1922Habitat destruction and predation by introduced goats and cats. [69]
1907 Black mamo Drepanis funereaMolokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Habitat destruction by introduced cattle and deer, and predation by introduced rats and mongooses. [382]
Huia [383] [384] Heteralocha acutirostrisNorth Island, New ZealandHunting and deforestation of old growth forests to make pastures for livestock.
Huia louse Rallicola extinctus1990 Extinction of its host. [385]
1908 Assumption rail Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti Assumption Island, Seychelles1937Hunting, habitat destruction, and predation by introduced rats. [69]
Siquijor hanging parrot Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis Siquijor, PhilippinesPossibly deforestation and capture for the pet trade. [69]
Persoonia laxa Sydney's Northern Beaches, Australia2020 (IUCN)Probably habitat destruction. [386]
Alejandro Selkirk firecrown Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi Alejandro Selkirk Island?, Juan Fernández Archipelago, ChileProbably deforestation, predation and erosion caused by introduced cats, rats, goats, and rabbits, and competition of introduced plants with the nesting tree Luma apiculata . [69]
1909 Cumberland leafshell Epioblasma stewardsoniiTennessee and Coosa River systems, United States1983 (IUCN)Undetermined. [387]
Bogotá sunangel Heliantelus zusiiNorthern Andes?Possibly deforestation. [69]
Tarpan Equus ferus ferusEuropeHunting and hybridization with domestic horses. [388]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1910 Southwestern thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis macrourusSouthwest AustraliaDrought and overgrazing by livestock and introduced mammals. [69]
Maui hau kuahiwi [292] Hibiscadelphus wilderianusMaui, Hawaii, United States1978 (IUCN)Undetermined. [389]
Yellowfin cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki macdonaldi Twin Lakes, Colorado, United StatesHybridization with rainbow trout and competition with lake trout, both introduced. [316]
Slender-billed grackle Quiscalus palustris Lerma River and Xochimilco, Mexico1988 (IUCN)Draining of marshlands. [390]
1911 Iwo Jima rail Amaurornis cinerea brevicepsNaka Iwo Jima and Minami Iwo Jima, Bonin Islands, JapanHabitat clearance for agriculture and predation by introduced cats and rats. [69]
New Caledonian buttonquail Turnix novaecaledoniaeNew CaledoniaHunting, habitat degradation and predation by introduced animals. [391]
1912 Namoi Valley thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis inexpectatusCentral New South Wales, AustraliaUndetermined. [69]
Cape Verde giant skink [392] Chioninia coctei Cape Verde 1996 (IUCN)Predation by feral cats. [393]
Guadalupe storm petrel Oceanodroma macrodactylaGuadalupe Island, MexicoPredation by feral cats, and habitat degradation by goat grazing. [394]
Bornean Baillon's crake Porzana pusilla mira Borneo Deforestation? [69]
1913 Laysan millerbird Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris Laysan, Hawaii, United States1923Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits. [69]
New Caledonian lorikeet [395] Charmosyna diademaNew Caledonia1998Undetermined. [396]
1914 Passenger pigeon [397] [398] Ectopistes migratoriusEastern North America1988 (IUCN)Hunting and habitat loss.
Laughing owl [399] Ninox albifaciesNew ZealandCompetition or predation by introduced stoats and cats. [400]
c. 1915 [401] Kenai Peninsula wolf Canis lupus alces Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, United StatesExtermination campaign.
1915 [402] New Caledonian owlet-nightjar Aegotheles savesiSouthwestern New CaledoniaUndetermined. [69]
1917 Cayenne nightjar Antrostomus maculosusNorthwestern French Guiana
Rodrigues day gecko Phelsuma edwardnewtoniiRodrigues2021 (IUCN)Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced rats and cats. [403]
1918 Dirk Hartog thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis carteri Dirk Hartog Island, Western AustraliaPredation by introduced rats. [69]
Lord Howe starling [69] Aplonis fusca hullianaLord Howe Island, Australia1928
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced black rats. [404] [405]
Robust white-eye Zosterops strenuus
Carolina parakeet [406] Conuropsis carolinensisEastern and central United States1988 (IUCN)Hunting, habitat loss, and competition with introduced bees. [407]
Lānaʻi hookbill Dysmorodrepanis munroiLana'i, Hawaii, United StatesHabitat destruction for pineapple agriculture, and predation by introduced cats and rats. [408]
1918-1952 [409] Bernard's wolf Canis lupus bernardi Banks Island, CanadaUndetermined. It's been suggested that Bernard's wolf should be merged with the extant arctic wolf [410] or other wolves from the continent. [409]
1919 Appalachian Barbara's buttons Marshallia grandiflora Henderson and Polk counties, North Carolina, United States2020Undetermined. [411]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1920 Florida black wolf Canis rufus floridanus Eastern United States Hunting and habitat loss. [412]
1920 True fera Coregonus feraLake Geneva2008 (IUCN)Eutrophication and overfishing. [413]
1922 Great Plains wolf [414] Canis lupus nubilusNorth American prairie1926 [415] Extermination campaign. The Great Plains wolf has been later determined to be continuous morphologically [410] and genetically [416] with the still existing Mexican wolf, which would use the name C. l. nubilus if placed in the same subspecies, due to being the older one.
Red-moustached fruit dove Ptilinopus mercieriiMarquesas, French Polynesia1994 (IUCN)Predation by introduced great horned owls, rats, and cats. [417]
1923 Norfolk Island starling Aplonis fusca fuscaNorfolk Island, Australia1968
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined. [404]
Laysan honeycreeper Himatione fraithiiLaysan, Hawaii, United States2016 (IUCN)Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits. [418]
Nazareno Monteverdia lineataWestern Cuba2020 (IUCN)Possibly habitat degradation. [419]
1924 Round combshell Epioblasma personataTennessee, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United StatesUndetermined. [420]
Lord Howe fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa cervinaLord Howe Island, Australia1928Probably predation by introduced rats. [69]
California grizzly bear Ursus arctos californicusCalifornia, United StatesHunting. [421]
1925 Bubal hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphusNorth Africa and Southern Levant Hunting. [422]
1926 Anthony's woodrat Neotoma bryanti anthonyi Isla Todos Santos, Mexico2008 (IUCN)Predation by feral cats. [423]
1927 Thick-billed ground dove Alopecoenas salamonisSolomon Islands2005 (IUCN)Probably habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats. [424]
Caucasian wisent [425] Bison bonasus caucasicus Caucasus Mountains Hunting. Hybrid descendants exist in captivity, and have been reintroduced to the wild. [426]
Snake River sucker Chasmistes muriei Snake River, United StatesHybridization with the Utah sucker after dams changed the river's flow. [316]
Syrian wild ass Equus hemionus hemippus Near East Hunting. [427]
Hawaii yellowwood Ochrosia kilaueaensisHawai'i, Hawaii, United States2020 (IUCN)Habitat degradation by introduced plants, goats, and fires. [428]
Cry pansy Viola cryana Cry, Yonne, France2011 (IUCN)Overcollection by botanists and limestone quarrying. [429]
1928 Utah Lake sculpin Cottus echinatus Utah Lake, Utah, United StatesIncreased water pollution and salinity caused by agriculture, and introduced fishes. The last individuals may have been killed by drought in the 1930s. [316]
Lord Howe gerygone Gerygone insularisLord Howe Island, Australia1936
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced rats. [430]
Ethiopian amphibious rat Nilopegamys plumbeusNorthwestern EthiopiaHabitat destruction. [431] [432]
Paradise parrot Psephotellus pulcherrimusEastern Australia1994 (IUCN)Probably habitat degradation. [433]
Eastwood's long-tailed seps Tetradactylus eastwoodae Limpopo, South Africa1996 (IUCN)Habitat loss. [434]
1929 Acalypha wilderi Northwestern Rarotonga, Cook Islands 2014 (IUCN)Deforestation for agriculture and housing development. Doubts exist about it being distinct from still living A. raivavensis and A. tubuaiensis; if indeed the same, the older name A. wilderi prevails. [435]
St. Kitts bullfinch Melopyrrha grandis Saint Kitts 1972Deforestation? [69]
Makira woodhen [436] Pareudiastes silvestris Makira, Solomon IslandsProbably predation by introduced cats and rats. [69]
Scleria chevalieri Western Senegal 2020 (IUCN)Draining of wetland habitat. [437]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1930 Western rufous bristlebird Dasyornis broadbenti littoralisSouthwestern AustraliaBurning of shrublands for pasture and predation by introduced cats. [69]
1930-1939 Tahiti rail Hypotaenidia pacificaTahiti and Mehetia?, French Polynesia [69] 1988 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced cats and rats. [438]
Nuku Hiva monarch [439] Pomarea nukuhivae Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia1972
2006 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and predation by introduced species. [440]
1930 St Kilda house mouse Mus musculus muralis St Kilda, Scotland Complete evacuation of St Kilda's human population, which it depended on. [441]
Darwin's Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwiniSanta Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador1994 (IUCN)Competition, predation, and exotic pathogens from introduced black rats. [442]
Silver trout Salvelinus agassizi Dublin Pond and Christine Lake, New Hampshire, United States1986 (IUCN)Overfishing and introduction of exotic fish. [316]
1931 Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bryanti bunkeri Coronados Islands, Mexico2008 (IUCN)Depletion of food resources and predation by feral cats. [443]
1932 Roosevelt's giant anole Anolis roosevelti Virgin Islands Possibly deforestation. [444]
Western Lewin's rail Lewinia pectoralis clelandiiSouthwest Australia1980sDrainage and burning of wetlands for agriculture and settlement. [69]
Heath hen Tympanuchus cupido cupido East Coast of the United States Hunting, predation by feral cats, wildfires, and histomoniasis transmitted by domestic poultry. [445] [446]
1933 Wolseley conebush Leucadendron spirale Breede River Valley, South Africa2020 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for timber plantations and agriculture, competition with invasive plants. [447]
1934 Lost shark Carcharhinus obsoletusSouthern South China Sea Fishing. [448]
Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō Moho nobilisHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Possibly habitat loss and disease. [449]
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessusSanta Cruz and Baltra, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador2008 (IUCN)Introduction of black rats. [450]
Aguelmame Sidi Ali trout [451] Salmo pallaryi Lake Aguelmame Sidi Ali, Morocco2006 (IUCN)Introduction of the common carp. [452]
1935 [453] [ better source needed ] Desert rat-kangaroo [454] Caloprymnus campestrisCentral Australia1994 (IUCN)Predation by introduced red foxes and cats. [455]
Mogollon mountain wolf Canis lupus mogollonensis Arizona, United StatesHunting. The subspecific differences between extinct Great Plains wolf, Mogollon mountain wolf, Southern Rocky Mountain wolf, and surviving Mexican wolf have been denied on morphological grounds. [410]
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf Canis lupus youngiSouthern Rocky Mountains
Roque Chico de Salmor giant lizard Gallotia simonyi simonyiOff El Hierro, Canary IslandsUndetermined. [456]
1936 Ryukyu wood pigeon Columba jouyiRyukyu, Japan1988 (IUCN) [457] Possibly deforestation. [69]
Virgin Islands screech owl [458] Megascops nudipes newtoni Virgin Islands Deforestation for agriculture. [69]
Thylacine [267] [459] [460] [461] [462] Thylacinus cynocephalusAustralia and New Guinea1982 (IUCN) [463] Competition with humans and dingos, extermination campaign (in Tasmania).
1937 De Winton's golden mole Cryptochloris wintoni Port Nolloth, South AfricaHabitat degradation. [464]
Bali tiger [465] Panthera tigris balica Bali, IndonesiaHunting and habitat loss. Genetics do not support a subspecific differentiation with the living Sumatran tiger. [285]
Marquesas swamphen Porphyrio paepae Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, French Polynesia2014 (IUCN)Probably hunting and predation by rats and cats. [466]
1938 Banara wilsonii Puerto Padre, Cuba2020 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for sugarcane cultivation. [467]
McGregor's house finch Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori San Benito Island, MexicoUndetermined. [69]
Grand Cayman oriole [468] Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Grand Cayman, Cayman IslandsDeforestation. [69]
Pahranagat spinedace Lepidomeda altivelis Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, United States1986 (IUCN)Competition and predation by introduced common carps, mosquitofish, and American bullfrogs. [316]
Bougainville black-faced pitta Pitta anerythra pallida Bougainville Island, Papua-New GuineaUndetermined. [69]
Eastern cougar [469] Puma concolor couguarEastern North America2011 [470] Hunting. Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation between the eastern cougar and living cougars in Florida and Western North America; [285] if placed under a single subspecies, this would have the name P. c. couguar because of being older.
Grass Valley speckled dace Rhynichthys osculus reliquus Lander County, Nevada, United StatesIntroduction of the rainbow trout. [316]
Daito varied tit Sittiparus varius orii Kitadaitōjima, Okinawa, Japan1984-1986Habitat destruction for agriculture and military infrastructure. [69]
Schomburgk's deer [471] Rucervus schomburgkiCentral Thailand 1994 (IUCN)Hunting. [472]
Grand Cayman thrush Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands1965
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss. [473]
1939 New Caledonian nightjar Eurostopodus exulNorthwestern New CaledoniaUndetermined. [69]
Toolache wallaby [474] Notamcropus greyiSoutheastern Australia1982 (IUCN)Habitat loss to agriculture, hunting, and predation by introduced red fox. [475]
Roystonea stellata Baracoa, eastern Cuba2020 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for coffee cultivation. [476]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1940 Sugarspoon Epioblasma arcaeformisCumberland and Tennessee river systems, United States1983 (IUCN) Damming. [477]
1940 Lesser ʻakialoa Akialoa obscuraHawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States1994 (IUCN)Possibly deforestation and introduced disease-carrying mosquitos. [478]
Cascade mountain wolf [453] [ better source needed ]Canis lupus fuscusContinental Cascadia [410] Hunting.
Las Vegas dace Rhinichthys deaconi Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, United States1965
1986 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction. [316]
Javan lapwing Vanellus macropterusJava, IndonesiaHunting and habitat loss to agriculture. [479]
c. 1941 [480] Arabian ostrich Struthio camelus syriacusArabian Peninsula and the Near EastHunting. [481]
1942 Texas gray wolf [453] [ better source needed ]Canis lupus monstrabilisTexas, United StatesHunting. The Texas gray wolf has been at times included within either the extinct Great Plains wolf or the living Mexican wolf on morphological grounds. [410]
Chapin's crombec Sylvietta leucophrys chapiniLendu Plateau, Democratic Republic of the Congo Deforestation. [69]
1943 Eriocaulon inundatum Senegal coast2020 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for salt mining. [482]
Cebu hanging parrot [483] Loriculus philippensis chrysonotus Cebu, PhilippinesDeforestation. [69]
Barbary lion [484] Panthera leo leoNorth AfricaHabitat loss from desertification and human activities, followed by extermination campaign. Hybrid descendants are believed to exist in captivity. [485] However, genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with living wild lions in Asia, West and Central Africa, [285] which would be named P. l. leo if placed within a single subspecies.
Desert bandicoot [486] Perameles eremianaCentral Australia1982 (IUCN)Predation by cats and foxes, competition with European rabbits, and changes to the fire regime after the British colonization of Australia. [487]
1944 American ivory-billed woodpecker [488] [489] Campephilus principalis principalisSouthern United StatesLogging and hunting. [490]
Laysan rail Zapornia palmeriLaysan, Hawaii, United States1988 (IUCN)Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits and guinea pigs, and predation by introduced rats. [491]
1944-1947 Aruba amazon Amazona barbadensis canifrons Aruba Persecution by farmers and exotic pet trade. [69]
1945 Wake Island rail Hypotaenidia wakensis Wake Island, United States1988 (IUCN)Hunting and destruction caused by fighting in World War II. [492]
1948 Ash Meadows killifish Empetrichthys merriami Ash Meadows, Nevada, United States1986 (IUCN)Predation by introduced American Bullfrogs and red swamp crayfish. [316]
1949 Sinú parakeet Pyrrhura subandinaSinú Valley, Córdoba, ColombiaPossibly hunting and habitat loss. [69]
Pink-headed duck [493] Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Northeast India, Bangladesh, and northern Myanmar Habitat loss to agriculture. [494]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1950 Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus Little Swan Island, Honduras1996 (IUCN)Introduced rats. [495]
1950-1959 Barbus microbarbis Lake Luhondo, Rwanda 2006 (IUCN)Introduced Tilapia and Haplochromis . [496]
Eriocaulon jordanii Sierra Leone coast2020 (IUCN)Possibly habitat destruction for rice cultivation. [497]
San Martín Island woodrat Neotoma bryanti martinensis Isla San Martín, Mexico2008 (IUCN)Predation by feral cats. [498]
Tawi-tawi buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus suluensis Jolo and Tawi-tawi, Sulu, PhilippinesPossibly deforestation and predation by introduced animals. [69]
1951 Afrocyclops pauliani Antananarivo, Madagascar1996 (IUCN)Undetermined. [499]
Japanese sea lion [500] Zalophus japonicus Japanese Islands and Korea 1994 (IUCN)Hunting. [501]
1952 Niceforo's pintail Anas georgica niceforoiCentral Colombia Possibly hunting and habitat degradation. [69]
Deepwater cisco Coregonus johannaeLakes Michigan and Huron 1986 (IUCN)Overfishing, predation by introduced lampreys, and hybridization with more common ciscoes. [316]
Caribbean monk seal [502] Neomonachus tropicalis Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico 1994 (IUCN)
2008 [503]
Hunting. [504]
San Benedicto rock wren Salpinctes obsoletus exsul San Benedicto, Revillagigedo Islands, MexicoEruption of the El Boquerón vent. [69]
New Mexico sharp-tailed grouse Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi New Mexico (and Colorado?), United StatesAridification and habitat destruction. [69]
1953 Ilin Island cloudrunner [505] Crateromys paulus Mindoro and Ilin Islands, PhilippinesDeforestation? [506]
Raycraft Ranch killifish Empetrichthys latos concavus Pahrump Valley, Nevada, United StatesPredation by introduced carps and bullfrogs. [316]
Faramea chiapensis Selva Negra, Chiapas, Mexico2020 (IUCN)Deforestation for agriculture. [507]
Negros fruit dove Ptilinopus arcanus Negros Island, PhilippinesDeforestation? [69]
Schizothorax saltans Talas River basin, Kazakhstan2020 (IUCN)Water extraction, pollution, and fisheries. [508]
1954 Maravillas red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis blairi Maravillas Creek, Texas, United States1987Introduction of plains killifish. [316]
Plateau chub Evarra eigenmanni Chalco and Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1986 (IUCN)Habitat destruction and pollution. [509]
1955 [510] Itombwe nightjar Caprimulgus prigoginei Central Africa?Deforestation? [69]
1956 Coosa elktoe Alasmidonta mccordiCoosa River, Alabama, United States2000 (IUCN) Impoundment of the Coosa River. [511]
Imperial woodpecker Campephilus imperialisNorth-Central MexicoHunting and habitat loss. [512]
Levuana moth [513] Levuana iridescensViti Levu, Fiji1994 (IUCN) [514] Introduction of the parasitic fly Bessa remota by coconut farmers, as a form of biological pest control. However, it's been argued that L. iridescens was not actually native to Fiji and that lack of post-1956 records is the result of diminished enthomological research after Fiji's independence. [513]
Crescent nail-tail wallaby [515] Onychogalea lunataWestern and central Australia1982 (IUCN)Predation by introduced foxes and feral cats, human-induced habitat degradation. [516]
1957 Thicktail chub Gila crassicauda California Central Valley and San Francisco Bay, United States1986 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for agriculture and introduced fish. [316]
Scioto madtom Noturus trautmani Big Darby Creek, Ohio, United States2013 (IUCN)Undetermined. [517]
Hainan ormosia [518] Ormosia howiiHainan and Guangdong, China1998 (IUCN)Possibly deforestation for agriculture. [519]
1958 Pahrump Ranch poolfish Empetrichthys latos pahrump Nye County, Nevada, United StatesHabitat destruction by excessive water pumping. [316]
Blue Pike Stizostedion vitreum glaucum Lake Erie, Ontario, and Niagara River 1983Overfishing and hybridization with walleye. [520]
Sandhills crayfish Procambarus angustatus Sand Hills, Georgia, United States2010 (IUCN) [521]
1959 Rennell Island teal Anas gibberifrons remissia Rennell Island, Solomon IslandsCompetition with introduced Tilapia. [69]
Santa Barbara song sparrow Melospiza melodia graminea Santa Barbara Island, California, United States1983Wildfire. [520]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1960 Lesser bilby Macrotis leucura Deserts of Australia 1982 (IUCN)Probably predation by introduced cats and red foxes, and changes to the fire regime. [522]
1960 Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango Brasilia, Brazil2008 (IUCN) Urban sprawl. [523]
1960-1969 Pantanodon madagascariensis Mahambo, Madagascar2004 (IUCN)Introduced Gambusia . [524]
Syr Darya sturgeon Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi Syr Darya riverDraining of the Aral Sea. [525]
1961 Northern white-winged apalis Apalis chariessa chariessaLower Tana river, KenyaDeforestation. [69]
Viesca mud turtle Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalumSouthwestern Coahuila, MexicoAridification. [526]
Semper's warbler [527] Leucopeza semperi St Lucia mountainsPredation by introduced Javan mongooses. [528]
Durango shiner Notropis aulidionTunal river, Durango, Mexico1990 (IUCN)Pollution and introduced species. [316]
Zacatecas Worthen's sparrow Spizella wortheni browniNorthwest Zacatecas, Mexico1991Habitat destruction caused by agriculture, overgrazing, cattle-induced erosion, and decline of native herbivores. [69]
1961-1963 Kākāwahie Paroreomyza flammeaMolokai, Hawaii, United States1979
1994 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and introduced disease. [529]
1962 Du Toit's torrent frog Arthroleptides dutoitiKenya-Uganda borderPossibly habitat degradation and chytridiomycosis. [530]
Red-bellied gracile opossum Cryptonanus ignitus Jujuy, Argentina2008 (IUCN)Habitat loss to agriculture and industry development. [531]
Saint Helena darter Sympetrum dilatatumSaint Helena1996-2021 (IUCN)Probably deforestation and predation by extinct aquatic carnivores including the African clawed frog. [532]
1963 Eskimo curlew [533] Numenius borealisNorthwestern Canada and Alaska, and Southern ConeHunting and habitat destruction. [534] [535]
Ptychochromis onilahy Onilahy River, Madagascar2004 (IUCN)Overfishing, deforestation leading to increased sedimentation, and competition with introduced tilapias. [536]
1964 Hawaii chaff flower Achyranthes atollensisThe atolls Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes, and Laysan of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, United States2003 (IUCN)Habitat loss due to the construction of military installations. [537]
Barbodes disa Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Overfishing and predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper. [538] [539] [540] [541] [542] [543]
Katapa-tapa Barbodes flavifuscus
Kandar Barbodes lanaoensis
Bitungu Barbodes pachycheilus
Barbodes palata
Bagangan Barbodes resimus
South Island snipe Coenocorypha iredaleiSouth and Stewart islands, New Zealand2014 (IUCN)Predation by introduced animals. [544]
Lake Ontario kiyi Coregonus kiyi orientalisLake OntarioOverfishing, introduction of exotic species, eutrophication, and water pollution. [316]
Goldman's yellow rail Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmaniLerma River, MexicoUndetermined. [69]
Rio Grande bluntnose shiner Notropis simus simusUpper Rio Grande Possibly habitat degradation and introduced species. [316]
Crested shelduck [545] Tadorna cristata Primorye, Hokkaido, and Korea;
Northeastern China?
Undetermined. [546]
1965 Turgid blossom Epioblasma turgidulaSouthern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau, United StatesDamming and water pollution. [547]
1966 Independence Valley tui chub Gila bicolor isolata Warm Springs, Nevada, United StatesPredation by introduced species. [316]
1967 Narrow catspaw Epioblasma leniorTennessee River system, United States1983-2000 (IUCN)Damming. [548]
Saint Helena earwig Labidura herculeanaSaint Helena2014 (IUCN)Predation by introduced animals. [549]
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robustaNew Zealand1988 (IUCN)Predation by introduced Polynesian and black rats. [550]
1968 Amistad gambusia Gambusia amistadensisGoodenough Spring, Texas, United States1986 (IUCN)
Flooding of the spring by the Amistad Reservoir, hybridization and predation. [520] [316]
San Clemente wren Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys San Clemente, Channel Islands of California, United StatesVegetation destruction by introduced goats and sheep. [69]
1969 Kauaʻi ʻakialoa Akialoa stejnegeriKaua'i, Hawaii, United States2016 (IUCN)Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease. [551]
Blackfin cisco Coregonus nigripinnisLakes Michigan and Huron1996 (IUCN)Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with other ciscoes. [316]
Tubercled blossom Epioblasma torulosa torulosaTennessee and Ohio River systems, United StatesImpoundment, siltation, and pollution. [552]
1969-1970 [553] Kouprey Bos sauveliNortheastern Cambodia Hunting. [554]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
c. 1970 Socorro elf owl Micrathene whitneyi graysoni Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, MexicoHabitat degradation. [69]
1970 Mexican dace Evarra bustamanteiXochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico1986 (IUCN)Habitat destruction and pollution. [555] [556]
Endorheic chub Evarra tlahuacensisLake Chalco, Valley of Mexico
Saudi gazelle Gazella saudiyaArabian Peninsula2008 (IUCN)Hunting. [557]
Clear Lake splittail Pogonichthys ciscoides Clear Lake and its tributaries, California, United States1986 (IUCN)Habitat destruction and pollution from agriculture. [316]
1970-1979 Pagan reed warbler Acrocephalus yamashinae Pagan, Northern Mariana Islands1981
2016 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats and cats. [69]
Acornshell Epioblasma haysianaTennessee and Cumberland River systems, United States1994 (IUCN)Exposure to domestic sewage. [558]
Western Turner's eremomela Eremomela turneri kalindeiSoutheast D. R. Congo and southwest Uganda Deforestation. [69]
1970-1989Aplocheilichthys sp. nov. 'Naivasha' Lake Naivasha, Kenya2004 (IUCN)Competition and predation by introduced fish. [559]
1971 Ticao Tarictic hornbill Penelopidis panini ticaensis Ticao Island, PhilippinesHabitat destruction. [69]
1972 Tecopa pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae Tecopa Hot Springs, California, United States1982Habitat degradation and introduced bluegill sunfish and mosquito fish. [520]
Tropical acidweed Desmarestia tropicaGalápagos Islands, EcuadorUndetermined. [560] [561]
Mason River myrtle Myrcia skeldingiiMason River, Jamaica1998 (IUCN)
Bushwren Xenicus longipesNew Zealand1994 (IUCN)Predation by introduced cats, rats, weasels, and stoats. [69]
1973 Moorea reed warbler Acrocephalus longirostrisMoorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia1987Possibly predation by introduced animals, deforestation, or avian malaria. [69]
Bitungu Barbodes truncatulusLake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper. [562]
Bar-winged rail Hypotaenidia poecilopteraFiji1994 (IUCN)Predation by introduced cats and mongooses. [563]
Guadeloupe house wren Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensisGuadeloupeDeforestation. [69]
1974 Barbodes herrei Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper. [564]
Vanua Levu long-legged thicketbird [565] Cincloramphus rufus cluniei Vanua Levu, FijiUndetermined. [69]
Flores rail Lewinia pectoralis exsulSouth and west Flores, Indonesia
Aragua robber frog Pristimantis anotis Henri Pittier National Park, Aragua, VenezuelaChytridiomycosis? [566]
1975 Bagangan Barbodes clemensiLake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper. [567] [568]
Bitungu Barbodes palaemophagus
Round Island burrowing boa Bolyeria multocarinataRound Island, Mauritius?1996 (IUCN)Habitat degradation by introduced goats and rabbits. [569]
Longjaw cisco Coregonus alpenaeLakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie1986 (IUCN)Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with introduced ciscoes. [316]
Phantom shiner Notropis orcaRio GrandePossibly habitat loss, hybridization with the bluntnose shiner, and introduction of exotic fishes. [316]
1976 Barbodes tras Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper. [570]
Jalpa false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea exspectataCerro Miramundo, Jalapa, GuatemalaPossibly logging and cattle grazing. [571]
Mexican grizzly bear Ursus arctos nelsoni Aridoamerica Hunting. [572]
1977 Barbodes katolo Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper. [573] [574]
Barbodes manalak
Gonâve eastern chat-tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus abbotti Gonâve Island, Haiti Deforestation. [69]
Colombian grebe Podiceps andinus Bogotá wetlands, Colombia1994 (IUCN)Habitat loss, pollution, hunting, and predation of chicks by introduced rainbow trout. [575]
Eiao monarch Pomarea fluxa Eiao, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia2006 (IUCN)Possibly predation by introduced cats, black rats, and Polynesian rats; disease transmitted by introduced chestnut-breasted mannikin, and habitat loss due to grazing by sheep. [576]
1978 Craugastor myllomyllon Finca Volcán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala2020 (IUCN)Habitat destruction for agriculture. [577]
White-eyed river martin Eurochelidon sirintaraeCentral ThailandHunting and habitat loss. [578]
Little earth hutia Mesocapromys sanfelipensisKey Juan García, CubaHunting, man-made fires, and competition with black rats. [579]
1979 Yunnan lake newt Cynops wolterstorffi Kunming Lake, Yunnan, China2004 (IUCN)Pollution, habitat destruction, and introduced fish and frog species. [580]
Caspian tiger [581] Panthera tigris virgataTranscaucasia, Kurdistan, Hyrcania, Afghanistan, and Turkestan Hunting and desertification. [284] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation with extant mainland tigers. [285]
Mount Glorious day frog Taudactylus diurnusSoutheast Queensland, Australia2002 (IUCN)Undetermined. [582]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1980 [583] Olomaʻo Myadestes lanaiensisMaui, Lana'i, and Molokai, HawaiiDisease and habitat degradation caused by introduced pigs, axis deer, and mosquitos. [584]
1980-1985 Roberts's lechwe Kobus leche robertsiLuongo and Kalungwishi drainage systems, Luapula, Zambia1994 (IUCN)Undetermined. [585]
1981 Anabarilius macrolepis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China2011 (IUCN)Drying of the lake for 20 days, after excessive water abstraction for agriculture. [586]
Mariana mallard [587] Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti Mariana Islands 2004Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture. [588]
Yilong carp Cyprinus yilongensisYilong Lake, Yunnan, China1996 (IUCN)Drying of the lake after excessive water abstraction for agriculture. [589]
Canary Islands oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoiLanzarote and Fuerteventura, Spain; Senegal1994 (IUCN)Overharvesting of intertidal invertebrates. [590]
Puhielelu hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatusLana'i, Hawaii, United States1998 (IUCN)Predation by introduced axis deer. [292]
Bishop's ʻōʻō Moho bishopiMolokai, Hawaii, United States2000 (IUCN)Habitat loss to agriculture and livestock grazing, followed by the introduction of black rats and disease-carrying mosquitos. [591]
Southern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus silusSoutheast Queensland, Australia2002 (IUCN)Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis. [592]
1982-1983 Galápagos damsel Azurina eupalamaGalápagos Islands, Ecuador 1982-83 El Niño event. [593]
1982 Pait Barbodes amarusLake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced fishes. [594]
Samaná eastern chat-tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus Samaná Peninsula, Dominican RepublicDeforestation. [69]
1983 San Marcos gambusia Gambusia georgeiSan Marcos spring and river, Texas, United States1990 (IUCN)Reduced flow and pollution from agriculture, introduced fishes and plants ( Colocasia esculenta ), and hybridization with Gambusia affinis . [595]
24-rayed sunstar Heliaster solarisGalápagos Islands, Ecuador1982-83 El Niño event. [596]
Japanese otter Lutra nippon [597] Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, Japan2012Hunting and habitat loss. [598]
Guam flycatcher Myiagra freycineti Guam 1994 (IUCN)
2004 [588]
Predation by the introduced brown tree snake. [599]
Formosan clouded leopard [600] [ better source needed ]Neofelis nebulosa brachyura Taiwan 2013Hunting. Subspecific status has been denied on morphological and genetic grounds. [285]
Aldabra brush-warbler Nesillas aldabrana Malabar Island, Seychelles1994 (IUCN)Possibly predation by introduced cats and rats, and habitat degradation by goats and tortoises. [601]
Guam bridled white-eye Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatusGuamPredation by introduced brown tree snakes. [69]
1983-1986 Atitlán grebe Podilymbus gigas Lake Atitlán, Guatemala1994 (IUCN)Predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, water level fall after the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, and degradation of breeding sites due to reed-cutting and tourism development. [602]
1984 Green blossom Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculumTennessee River system, United StatesImpoundment, siltation, and pollution. [552]
Javan tiger Panthera tigris sondaicaJava, Indonesia1994Hunting and habitat loss. [284] Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with the extant Sumatran tiger; if placed in the same subspecies, this would have the name P. t. sondaica due to being older. [285]
Guam rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons uraniaeGuamPredation by introduced brown tree snakes. [69]
c. 1985 California condor louse Colpocephalum californiciNorth America Delousing of all surviving California condors before beginning their captive breeding program. [15]
1985 Timucua heart lichen Cora timucuaFlorida, United StatesHabitat destruction for urban development. [603]
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura Christmas Island, AustraliaUndetermined. [604]
Kāmaʻo [605] Myadestes myadestinusKaua'i, Hawaii, United States2004 (IUCN)Habitat loss and disease spread by introduced mosquitos. [606]
Ua Pou monarch [307] Pomarea mira Ua Pou, Marquesas, French PolynesiaDeforestation and predation by introduced black rats. [607]
Northern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus vitellinusMid-eastern Queensland, Australia2002 (IUCN)Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis. [608]
Alaotra grebe [609] Tachybaptus rufolavatus Lake Alaotra, Madagascar2010 (IUCN)Hunting, accidental capture in nylon gillnets, predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, striped snakehead, and Tilapia ; habitat degradation from agriculture, and hybridization with the little grebe. [610]
1986 Pass stubfoot toad Atelopus senexCentral Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN)Possibly chytridiomycosis or climate change. [611]
Zanzibar leopard [612] Panthera pardus adersi Unguja Island, TanzaniaExtermination campaign. [284] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds. [613]
Eastern Canary Islands chiffchaff Phylloscopus canariensis exsulLanzarote and Fuerteventura?, Canary IslandsHabitat loss? [69]
Banff longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada1987Habitat degradation, competition and hybridization with introduced fishes. [614]
1987 Dusky seaside sparrow [615] Ammospiza maritima nigrescens Merritt Island and the St. Johns River, Florida, United States1990Flooding and draining of marshes to reduce mosquito population. [616]
Cuban ivory-billed woodpecker [617] Campephilus principalis bairdiiCubaHabitat loss. [490]
Kauaʻi ʻōʻō Moho braccatusKauaʻi, Hawaii, United States2000 (IUCN)Habitat loss and introduced black rats, pigs, and disease-carrying mosquitos. The last female was killed by Hurricane Iwa during the 1982-1983 El Niño event. [618]
Namibcypris costata Southern Kaokoveld, Namibia1996 (IUCN)Habitat destruction. [619]
1988 Maui ʻakepa Loxops ochraceusMaui, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined. [620]
Bachman's warbler [621] Vermivora bachmaniiSoutheastern United States and CubaHabitat destruction from swampland draining and sugarcane agriculture. [622]
1989 Golden toad Incilius periglenes Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica2020 (IUCN) Anthropogenic global warming, chytridiomycosis, and airborne pollution. [623]
Jamaican golden swallow Tachycineta euchrysea euchryseaJamaicaDeforestation? [69]
Malabar large-spotted civet Viverra civettina Western Ghats, IndiaPossibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by domestic dogs. [624]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
1990 [625] Nechisar nightjar Caprimulgus solala Nechisar National Park, EthiopiaUndetermined. [69]
1990-1999 [626] Magdalena tinamou Crypturellus erythropus saltuarius Magdalena River Valley, Colombia
1991 Baolan Barbodes baoulanLake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines2020 (IUCN)Predation by introduced fishes. [627]
Alvarez's dwarf crayfish Cambarellus alvareziPotosí Spring, Nuevo León, Mexico2010 (IUCN)Water abstraction [628]
1992 Splendid poison frog Oophaga speciosaWestern Panama Chytridiomycosis. [629]
1993 Moroccan bustard Ardeotis arabs lynesiWestern MoroccoUndetermined. [69]
1994 Pachnodus velutinus Mahé, Seychelles2000 (IUCN)Hybridization with Pachnodus niger . [630]
1995 Aguijan reed warbler Acrocephalus nijoi Aguijan, Mariana Islands2000-2009
2016 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction. [69]
Maui nukupu'u Hemignathus affinisMaui, Hawaii, United StatesUndetermined. [69]
1996 Chiriqui harlequin frog Atelopus chiriquiensisTalamanca-Chiriqui mountains, Costa Rica2020 (IUCN)Chytridiomycosis. [631]
Norfolk Island boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulataNorfolk Island, AustraliaDeforestation leading to increased competition for nest-hollows with honeybees and crimson rosellas. Descendants of hybrids with the New Zealand subspecies survive in the island. [69]
Barbary leopard Panthera pardus panthera Atlas Mountains Hunting. [284] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds. [613]
Swollen Raiatea Tree Snail [632] Partula turgidaRaiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia1996 (IUCN)Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails. [633]
1997 Green and red venter harlequin toad Atelopus pinangoi Mérida, VenezuelaChytridiomicosis, habitat destruction, and predation by introduced trout. [634]
Sangihe dwarf kingfisher Ceyx fallax sangirensis Sangihe Islands, IndonesiaHabitat destruction. [69]
Sakaraha pygmy kingfisher Corythornis madagascariensis dilutusSouthwestern MadagascarUndetermined. [69] [635]
Iberian lynx louse Felicola isidoroi Iberian Peninsula

3rd millennium CE

21st century


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
2000 Pyrenean ibex [636] Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Pyrenees; [330]
Cantabrian Mountains? [637]
2000 (IUCN) [638] Hunting, competition for pastures and diseases from exotic and domestic ungulates. [639] [640]
2001 Glaucous macaw Anodorhynchus glaucusBorder area of Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, and UruguayDeforestation for agriculture and livestock grazing, particularly of the Yatay palm in which it fed. [641]
Slender-billed curlew Numenius tenuirostrisWestern Eurasia and northern AfricaHunting and habitat destruction. [69]
2002 Chinese river dolphin [642] Lipotes vexilliferMiddle and lower Yangtze, China2007 [643] Fishing, habitat destruction, and vessel strikes. [644]
Polynesian tree snail [632] Partula labruscaRaiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia2007 (IUCN)Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails. [645]
2003 Osgood's Ethiopian toad Altiphrynoides osgoodiSouth-central Ethiopian mountainsHabitat degradation. [646]
Saint Helena olive [647] Nesiota ellipticaSaint Helena2004 (IUCN)Deforestation for fuel and timber, and use of the land for plantations of New Zealand flax, leading to inbreeding depression and fungal infections from reduced numbers. [648]
Chinese paddlefish Psephurus gladius Yangtze and Yellow River basins, China2019 (IUCN)Overfishing and construction of the Gezhouba Dam blocking the anadromous spawning migration [649] [650]
2004 Po'ouli Melamprosops phaeosomaEastern Maui, Hawaii, United StatesIntroduced avian malaria and predators. [651]
2006 Western black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis longipes South Sudan to Nigerian-Niger border area2011 (IUCN)Hunting. [652]
2007 South Island kōkako [653] Callaeas cinereusSouth Island, New ZealandHabitat destruction from logging and grazing ungulates, and predation by introduced black rats, brush-tailed possums, and stoats. [654]
2009 Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola Bramble Cay, Australia2015 (IUCN) [655] Sea level rise as a consequence of global warming. [656]
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayiChristmas Island, Australia2017 (IUCN)Undetermined. [657]


Last recordCommon nameBinomial nameFormer rangeDeclared extinctCauses
2010 Vietnamese rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticusSouth China and Indochina 2011Hunting. [658]
2011 Alagoas foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi Alagoas and Pernambuco, Brazil2019 (IUCN)Deforestation. [69]
2012 [659] Pinta Island tortoise Chelonoidis abingdonii Pinta, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador2012 (IUCN) [660] Hunting and overgrazing by introduced goats. Hybrid descendants exist in other Galapagos islands, as a result of human intervention. [661]
2014 [662] Christmas Island forest skink Emoia nativitatisChristmas Island, Australia2017 (IUCN)Habitat loss to mining and predation by introduced Indian wolf snake and yellow crazy ant. [663]
2016 [664] [665] Rabbs' fringe-limbed treefrog Ecnomiohyla rabborum El Valle de Antón, Panama2016 Chytridiomycosis. [666]
2019 [667] Oahu treesnail Achatinella apexfulvaOahu, Hawaii, United States2019Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails. [668]

See also


  1. S.L. Pimm, G.J. Russell, J.L. Gittleman and T.M. Brooks, The Future of Biodiversity, Science 269: 347–350 (1995)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tyrberg, T. (2008). The Late Pleistocene continental avian extinction—An evaluation of the fossil evidence. Oryctos, 7, 249-269.
  3. 1 2 A previously obtained 8580-8260 BCE date is considered dubious. Barnett, R.; Shapiro, B.; Barnes, I. A. N.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Burger, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Higham, T. F. G.; Wheeler, H. T.; Rosendahl, W.; Sher, A. V.; Sotnikova, M.; Kuznetsova, T.; Baryshnikov, G. F.; Martin, L. D.; Harington, C. R.; Burns, J. A.; Cooper, A. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity". Molecular Ecology. 18 (8): 1668–1677. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04134.x. PMID   19302360. S2CID   46716748.
  4. 1 2 3 Stinnesbeck, S.R. (2020) Mexican fossil ground sloths. A case study for Late Pleistocene megafaunal turnover in the Mexican Corridor. Doctoral dissertation.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Haynes, Gary (2009). American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. Springer. ISBN   978-1-4020-8792-9 . Retrieved 28 February 2012.
  6. 1 2 Naughton, D. (2003). Annotated bibliography of Quaternary vertebrates of northern North America: with radiocarbon dates. University of Toronto Press, 539 pages.
  7. 1 2 Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L. (16 August 2005). "Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (33): 11763–8. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10211763S. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0502777102 . PMC   1187974 . PMID   16085711.
  8. 1 2 Huenneke, L.F. & Mooney, H.A. (2012) Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Springer Science & Business Media, 222 pages.
  9. A 5850 BCE datation needs further confirmation. Sheng, G.L. et al. (2014) Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta. Molecular Ecology, 23(3), 522-533.
  10. Kropf, M., Mead, J. I., & Anderson, R. S. (2007). Dung, diet, and the paleoenvironment of the extinct shrub-ox (Euceratherium collinum) on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Quaternary Research, 67(1), 143-151.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Martin, Paul S.; Klein, Richard G. (1989). Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press. ISBN   978-0-231-03733-4.
  12. "Navahoceros fricki".
  13. Bravo-Cuevas, V. M., & Jiménez-Hidalgo, E. (2018). Advances on the paleobiology of late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico. In The Pleistocene, Geography, Geology and Fauna, eds G. Huard and J. Gareau (New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers), 277-313.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. A.G.J. Rhodin, P.C.H. Pritchard, P.P. van Dijk, R.A. Saumure, K.A. Buhlmann, J.B. Iverson, and R.A. Mittermeier, Eds. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000e.fossil.checklist.v1.2015
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Turvey, Sam (2009). Holocene extinctions. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-953509-5 . Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  16. A previous datation to 8570-8270 BCE is considered dubious.
  17. Prado, J. L., Martinez-Maza, C., & Alberdi, M. T. (2015). Megafauna extinction in South America: A new chronology for the Argentine Pampas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 425, 41-49.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tonni, E. P., Cione, A. L., & Soibelzon, L. H. (2003). The broken zig-zag: late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extintion in South America. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 5.
  19. A datation to 9050-7550 BCE is considered dubious. Koch, P. L., Hoppe, K. A., & Webb, S. D. (1998). The isotopic ecology of late Pleistocene mammals in North America: Part 1. Florida. Chemical Geology, 152(1-2), 119-138.
  20. Woodman, N., & Athfield, N. B. (2009). Post-Clovis survival of American mastodon in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Quaternary Research, 72(3), 359-363.
  21. 1 2 Mothé, D. et al. (2017). Sixty years after 'The mastodonts of Brazil': The state of the art of South American proboscideans (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae). Quaternary International, 443, 52-64.
  22. Correal Urrego, G. et al. (1990) Evidencias culturales durante el Pleistoceno y Holoceno de Colombia. Revista de Arqueología Americana, 1, 68-69.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Louys, J.; Braje, T. J.; Chang, C.-H.; Cosgrove, R.; Fitzpatrick, S. M.; Fujita, M.; Hawkins, S.; Ingicco, T.; Kawamura, A.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDowell, M. C.; Meijer, H. J. M.; Piper, P. J.; Roberts, P.; Simmons, A. H.; van den Bergh, G.; van der Geer, A.; Kealy, S.; O'Connor, S. (2021). "No evidence for widespread island extinctions after Pleistocene hominin arrival". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118 (20): e2023005118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11823005L. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2023005118 . ISSN   0027-8424. PMC   8157961 . PMID   33941645.
  24. 1 2 Younger remains dated to 7250-6750 BCE could be E. conversidens or E. francisci . Toomey, R. S. (1993). Late Pleistocene and Holocene faunal and environmental changes at Hall's Cave, Kerr County, Texas (Doctoral dissertation).
  25. 1 2 Feranec, R.S., & Kozlowski, A.L. (2010) AMS radiocarbon dates from Pleistocene and Holocene mammals housed in the New York state museum, Albany, New York, USA. Radiocarbon, 52(1), 205-208.
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  31. Der Sarkissian, C. et al. (2015). Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an outgroup to all living equids. Biology Letters, 11(3), 20141058.
  32. Villavicencio, N. A., Corcoran, D., & Marquet, P. A. (2019). Assessing the causes behind the Late Quaternary extinction of horses in South America using Species Distribution Models. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 226.
  33. Ubilla, M., et al. (2018) Mammals in last 30 to 7 ka interval (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) in southern Uruguay (Santa Lucía River Basin): last occurrences, climate, and biogeography. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 25(2), 291-300.
  34. Samonds, K.E. 2007. Late Pleistocene bat fossils from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar. Acta Chiropterologica 9(1):39–65.
  35. Labarca, R., & Alcaraz, M. A. (2011). Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (= Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela)(Artiodactyla, Cervidae) en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35° S). Andean geology, 38(1), 156-170.
  36. Kosintsev, P. (2007). Late Pleistocene large mammal faunas from the Urals. Quaternary International, 160(1), 112-120.
  37. 1 2 3 4 Wang, Y., Pedersen, M.W., Alsos, I.G. et al. Late Quaternary dynamics of Arctic biota from ancient environmental genomics. Nature (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04016-x
  38. Dantas, M.A.T., & Cozzuol, M.A. (2016) The Brazilian intertropical fauna from 60 to about 10 ka BP: taxonomy, dating, diet, and Paleoenvironments. In Marine Isotope Stage 3 in Southern South America, 60 KA BP-30 KA BP, pages 207-226.
  39. Cartelle, C., De Iuliis, G., & Pujos, F. (2015). Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Xenarthra, Megatheriinae) is the only valid megatheriine sloth species in the Pleistocene of intertropical Brazil: A response to Faure et al., 2014. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 14(1), 15-23.
  40. Routledge, J. (2020). Ostrich Eggshell from the Far Eastern Steppe: Stable Isotopic Exploration of Range, Commodification, and Extirpation (Doctoral dissertation, Trent University (Canada)).
  41. Farmer, D. (2012) Avian Biology. Elsevier.
  42. Turvey, S.T. et al. (2021). Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions in India: How much do we know?. Quaternary Science Reviews, 252, p. 106740.
  43. Remains assigned to Equus sp.; E. scotti is considered likely on the basis of size. A younger datation of E. scotti to 900-720 BCE is dubious according to Naughton (2003).
  44. Miño-Boilini, A. R., Carlini, A. A., Chiesa, J. O., Lucero, N. P., & Zurita, A. E. (2009). First record of Scelidodon chiliense (Lydekker)(Phyllophaga, Scelidotheriinae) from the Lujanian stage (late Pleistocene-early Holocene) of Argentina. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen, 253, 373-381.
  45. A younger datation to 3095-2775 BCE is considered dubious.
  46. Machado, H., & Avilla, L. (2019). The diversity of south American Equus: did size really matter?. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 235.
  47. Younger datations to 5850-4350 BCE and 2350 BCE are considered unconfirmed and dubious by Tonni et al. (2003), respectively.
  48. Cordeiro de Castro, M. (2015). Sistemática y evolución de los armadillos Dasypodini (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae). Revista del Museo de La Plata|Sección Paleontología, 15.
  49. Krmpotic, C.M., Carlini, A.A., & Scillato-Yané, G.J. (2009) The species of Eutatus (Mammalia, Xenarthra): Assessment, morphology and climate. Quaternary International, 210(1-2), 66-75.
  50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stuart, A.J. (2021) Vanished Giants: The Lost World of the Ice Age. University of Chicago Press, 288 pages.

  51. A younger datation to 3750 BCE is not confirmed. Murchie, T.J., et al. (2021) Collapse of the mammoth-steppe in central Yukon as revealed by ancient environmental DNA. Nature Communications, vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-18.
  52. Leonard, J. A., Vilà, C., Fox-Dobbs, K., Koch, P. L., Wayne, R. K., & Van Valkenburgh, B. (2007). Megafaunal extinctions and the disappearance of a specialized wolf ecomorph. Current Biology, 17(13), 1146-1150.
  53. Wilson, Paul J.; Rutledge, Linda Y. (2021). "Considering Pleistocene North American wolves and coyotes in the eastern Canis origin story". Ecology and Evolution. 11 (13): 9137–9147.
  54. Cruz, L. E., Bargo, M. S., Tonni, E. P., & Figini, A. J. (2010). Radiocarbon date on megafauna from the late Pleistocene-early Holocene of Córdoba province, Argentina: stratigraphic and paleoclimatic significance. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, 27(3), 470-476.
  55. Melis, S., Salvadori, S., & Pillola, G. L. (2010). SARDINIAN DEER: DERIVATIONS, FOSSIL DISCOVERIES AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. Present Environment & Sustainable Development, 4(2).
  56. Benzi, V. et al. (2007). Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Depéret) from "Grotta Juntu", Sardinia. Journal of archaeological science, 34(5), 790-794.
  57. Guerra Rodríguez, Carmen. "Avifauna del pleistoceno superior-holoceno de las Pitiusas: passeriformes y sus depredadores." (2015). Unpublished.
  58. Díaz-Sibaja, R. et al. (2020) A fossil Bison antiquus from Puebla, Mexico and a new minimum age for the Valsequillo fossil area. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 103, 102766.
  59. 1 2 Gutiérrez, M.A. et al. (2010). Supervivencia diferencial de mamíferos de gran tamaño en la región pampeana en el Holoceno temprano y su relación con aspectos paleobiológicos. Zooarqueología a principios del siglo XXI: Aportes teóricos, metodológicos y casos de estudio. Ediciones del Espinillo, Buenos Aires, 231-242.
  60. Zurita, A. E. (2007). Sistemática y evolución de los Hoplophorini (Xenarthra: glyptodontidae: hoplophorinae. Mioceno tardío-Holoceno temprano). Importancia bioestratigráfica, paleobiogeográfica y paleoambiental. (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Nacional de La Plata).
  61. Stuart, A. J., Kosintsev, P. A., Higham, T. F., & Lister, A. M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature, 431(7009), 684-689. Claims of survival to 600-500 BCE are based on dubious interpretations of Scythian art.
  62. Lister, A. M., & Stuart, A. J. (2019). The extinction of the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus (Blumenbach): New radiocarbon evidence. Quaternary International, 500, 185-203.
  63. 1 2 Bover, P. (2011). La paleontologia de vertebrats insulars de les Balears: la contribució de les excavacions recents. Endins: publicació d'espeleologia, 299-316.
  64. A datation to 3023-2809 BCE is considered dubious. Soibelzon, L.H. et al. (2012) Un Glyptodontidae de gran tamaño en el Holoceno temprano de la región Pampeana, Argentina. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 15(1): 105-112.
  65. Fernandez, P. et al. (2015). The last occurrence of Megaceroides algericus Lyddekker, 1890 (Mammalia, Cervidae) during the middle Holocene in the cave of Bizmoune (Morocco, Essaouira region). Quaternary International, 374, 154-167.
  66. Olson, S. L. (2008). A new species of large, terrestrial caracara from Holocene deposits in southern Jamaica (Aves: Falconidae). Journal of Raptor Research, 42(4), 265-272.
  67. Rodríguez-Flórez, C. D., Rodríguez-Flórez, E. L., & Rodríguez, C. A. (2009). Revisión de la fauna pleistocénica Gomphotheriidae en Colombia y reporte de un caso para el Valle del Cauca. Boletín Científico. Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural, 13(2), 78-85