The Council of Cardinals (C9), also known as the Council of Cardinal Advisers, is a group of cardinals of the Catholic Church appointed by Pope Francis to serve as his advisers. Announced on 13 April 2013, one month after his election, it was formally established on 28 September of the same year.The council currently has six members, following the decision by Pope Francis to remove three of its members in late 2018.
The council currently comprises six cardinals, assisted by Marcello Semeraro, Bishop of Albano, who serves as its secretary, as well as Monsignor Marco Mellino as its adjunct secretary.
The council is coordinated by Cardinal Rodríguez Maradiaga.
At the time of its formation, the council had eight members. Cardinal Parolin was not among the council's original membership, but attended the meetings regularly and, in July 2014, was confirmed by the Holy See Press Office as a ninth member of the council.
On 12 December 2018, the Holy See Press Office announced that Pope Francis had written to cardinals Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, George Pell and Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya at the end of October to thank them for their service on the council, ending their membership.On 11 December 2018, the day before the Vatican's announcement, Pell, the prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy and former Archbishop of Sydney, had been convicted of sexual abuse in an Australian criminal court, a conviction quashed by a higher court in 2020. Monsengwo Pasinya, the Archbishop emeritus of Kinshasa, had already retired from active pastoral ministry, while Errázuriz Ossa, the Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile, whose role in protecting priests accused as sexual abusers was being investigated by civil authorities, had resigned from the council on 14 November 2018. Because the Council's work was nearing its end, the three members were not replaced.
The council has a broad remit "to advise him in the government of the universal church and to study a plan for revising the Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus." Said to have been inspired by "a suggestion that emerged during the General Congregations preceding the Conclave", as relayed in the move's formal notice.
The council had its first meeting on 1–3 October. In a statement released after the close of the meeting, the intention of the cardinals is to emphasise the nature of the service on the part of the Curia and the universal and local church "in terms of subsidiarity, rather than the exercise of centralised power. The intended direction would be to put this into practice in the service of the Church in all her dimensions". Another important theme was the nature and functions of the Secretariat of State, which "should be the secretariat of the Pope; the word State should not give rise to doubt. This body serves the Pope in the governance of the universal Church". The Council will address the matter of relations between the heads of the dicasteries and the Pope, and co-ordination between the various bodies. "In this context, mention was made of the role of a 'Moderator Curiae' (Moderator of the Curia), and the functions of such a figure. The issue was touched upon but no decision has been made as to whether it will form part of the new constitution; however, it is in fact one of the hypotheses suggested by the Council".
The council had its second meeting from 3–5 December, discussing the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, entering fully into their in-depth task, not limited to retouches or minor improvements. The revision of Pastor Bonus is substantial, to the extent that it may be considered as a new constitution for the Curia.
The third meeting was held from 17–19 February 2014, where matters regarding the economic and administrative sectors were considered, shortly before the consistory for the creation of new cardinals and the meeting of the Synod council.In a press release it was noted that "Archbishop Pietro Parolin, Secretary of State and future cardinal, was and will continue to be present".
For the morning of 17 February, the representatives of the Commission for Reference on the Organisation of the Economic-Administrative Structure of the Holy See (COSEA)with three members of the commission were present, Josef F.X. Zahra, the secretary Msgr. Lucio Vallejo Balda and Joachim Messemer. The work carried out during the eight months since the creation of this body was presented with no decisions taken. On 18 February, the Commission for Reference on the Institute for Works of Religion (IOR) was heard. On 19 February the council continued without Pope Francis who held his usual general audience. The cardinals of the so-called "Council of Fifteen" instituted by John Paul II and responsible for the general consolidated financial statement of the Holy See and the Governorate of Vatican City State met with the council.
During the meeting from 28 to 30 April, Cardinal Parolinas participated regularly with the council. The council heard a report from the president of the Pontifical Commission for Reference on the Organisation of the Economic-Administrative Structures of the Holy See (COSEA), Joseph F. X. Zahra, in relation to some of the areas of activity within its remit. Following its review in previous meetings of the congregations of the Roman Curia, the council is now focusing on the Pontifical Councils, first in terms of general considerations, followed by an individual appraisal of each one. The council is expected to complete a first report of its considerations regarding the pontifical councils during this meeting.
During their meetings from 1–4 July, Pope Francis was present and said that he would participate fully like the other members of the council. Cardinal Bertello presented matters relating to the Governorate, and Cardinal Parolin made a presentation relating to the Secretariat of State. The issue of the structure of the Institute for Works of Religion (IOR) was discussed in depth. The meetings, held in two sessions, were also attended by Cardinal Parolin and members of the Supervisory Commission of Cardinals present in Rome: Cardinals Santos Abril y Castelló, Thomas Collins and Jean-Louis Cardinal Tauran.During these meetings the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family were studied in particular depth, especially in terms of the contributions and roles that should be assumed by laypeople, married couples and women. Decisions were not made, but more detailed proposals were offered for subsequent insertion into the overall framework of the new configuration of the Curia. Other themes included the nunciatures and the procedures for the appointment of bishops. The Vatican described the overall tone of the meetings as "free, frank and friendly".
During the course of the meetings from 15–17 September the cardinals had previously worked by examining all the Congregations and Pontifical Councils, but they had also assigned a significant amount of time to hearing the referring Commissions on economic and organisational questions (COSEA and CRIOR) and on matters pertaining to the economic Dicasteries. Work in this area is considered complete.In this meeting the Council resumed work on the other Dicasteries. In the meantime, several contributions had been prepared by various members of the Council on the different issues within their sphere of competence, which were proposed or presented to the Council. During these days, the Council focused on two principal difficult issues. The first includes the themes of the laity and the family. It is a very broad area, encompassing many issues, including for instance the role of women in society and in the Church, youth, childhood, or matters related to lay associations and movements, and so on. The second comprises themes linked to justice and peace, charity, migrants and refugees, health, and the protection of life and ecology, especially human ecology. The Council of Cardinals, as we are aware, does not make decisions, but formulates proposals for the Pope, who certainly intends to consult in further depth. In order to speed up this new phase in the work of the Council, the coordinator, Cardinal Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, S.D.B., has prepared an overall plan to facilitate the organisation of the contributions and reflections already offered during the previous meetings and the integration of new ones.
During the seventh meeting held from 9–11 December. The meetings focused on three themes: the reform of the Curia, the composition of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors and the reorganisation of the economic organs of the Holy See. As usual, Pope Francis participated in all meetings aside from the Wednesday morning session, due to his weekly general audience. With regard to reform of the Roman Curia, the Cardinals also addressed the specific question of the reorganisation of the Pontifical Councils that work in relation to the laity, the family, justice, peace and charity. No formal decisions were taken. The Commission for the Protection of Minors, which has eight members and a secretary, is to be enlarged with representatives from various ecclesial and cultural contexts around the world, reaching a total of around eighteen members. The candidates had been selected and their availability to participate was in the process of being verified. From 6 to 8 February 2015 the Commission plans to hold its plenary session and it is expected that all members will be confirmed by that date.Professor Joseph Zahra, the lay deputy coordinator of the Council for the Economy, reported to the Cardinals on the reorganisation of the economic dicasteries.
The eighth meeting was held from 9 to 11 February 2015. During the ninth meeting from 13 to 15 April the Council dedicated the majority its work regarding reform of the Roman Curia to two aspects: reflections on the methodologies to be followed for work during 2015 and 2016 in order to be able to effectively accomplish the task of preparing the new Constitution, and a rereading of the interventions by the Cardinals in relation to reform of the Curia made during the recent Consistory (there were over sixty interventions on this theme with useful indications and cues, both for the prologue of the constitution and for specific aspects of reform). The orientation towards the constitution of two dicasteries – one competent in fields of charity, justice and peace, the other regarding the laity, families and life – would appear to be confirmed. The Council also focused on the issue of the reorganisation of Vatican media, following the submission of the final report of the Commission presided over by Lord Patten. It is expected that the Pope will constitute a Commission to consider how the recommendations of the report can be put into practice. This body will also include members of the Patten Commission, to ensure continuity. Cardinal O'Malley, president of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, under the auspices of the same Commission, has proposed that the Pope and the Council consider the theme of "Accountability" with regard to the protection of minors, in order to establish appropriate procedures and methods for evaluating and judging cases of "abuse of office" in this area, especially on the part of persons holding responsibility within the Church.
Acting on their advice, Pope Francis in April 2015 established a Commission for the Reform of the Vatican's Communications Media.
At their tenth meeting from 8–10 June at which Cardinal Mosengwo Pasinya was unable to attend, the first day was dedicated largely to the examination of the draft Preamble of the new Constitution. With regard to financial and economic reform, Cardinal Pell, prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy, presented a report with updated information on the financial reforms. He mentioned the appointment of the new Auditor General, the approval of the new Statute for Pension Funds and the completion of the list of bodies subject to the control and supervision of the Council for the Economy, in accordance with its Statutes. He also referred to three new initiatives of the Council for the Economy, constituting three working groups: one for the analysis of income and investments; one for human resources management, and a third for the study of the existing IT systems, their compatibility and their efficiency. He concluded by reporting on the progress of the various current activities of the Secretariat for the Economy.
In the afternoon session of 8 June, the Council received a report from Cardinal O'Malley, with a proposal for the Pope regarding allegations of the abuse of office by a bishop connected to the abuse of minors, originally prepared by the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors. Cardinal O'Malley's report also included a proposal regarding allegations of sexual abuse of minors and vulnerable adults by clergy. For each proposal, the report indicated the general terms which define it, issues relating to procedure and to the competent Tribunal, as well as the advantages of the proposal compared with other possible solutions. The five specific proposals made to the Pope are firstly, because the competence to receive and investigate complaints of the episcopal abuse of office belongs to the Congregations for Bishops, Evangelisation of Peoples, or Oriental Churches, there is the duty to report all complaints to the appropriate Congregation; the Pope mandate the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to judge bishops with regard to crimes of the abuse of office when connected to the abuse of minors; the Pope authorise the establishment of a new Judicial Section in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and appointment of stable personnel to undertake service in the Tribunal. The implementation of this decision would follow consultation with the prefect for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; the Pope appoint a secretary to assist the prefect with the Tribunal. The secretary will be responsible for the new Judicial Section and the personnel of the section will also be available to the prefect for penal processes regarding the abuse of minors and vulnerable adults by clergy. This appointment will also follow the consultation with the prefect of the Congregation; the Pope establish a five-year period for further development of these proposals and for completing a formal evaluation of their effectiveness.
The Council agreed unanimously on these proposals and resolved that they be submitted to the Pope, who approved the proposals and authorised the provision of sufficient resources for this purpose. In the morning of 9 June the Council of Cardinals heard a report given by Msgr. Dario Vigano, director of the Vatican Television Centre and president of the Commission for Vatican communications instituted by Pope Francis on 23 April 2015 (made public on 30 April), and expressed its unanimous approval of the feasibility study conducted by the same Commission. Starting from the analyses and reports of McKinsey and the previous commissions (COSEA and the Vatican Media Commission chaired by Lord Patten), the current Commission presented a plan for reform to be implemented over a four-year period, ensuring the protection of staff and a gradual integration of institutions. The constitution of the dicastery will be drafted, and the necessary appointments made during the coming months to enable the process to be initiated. The Commission is currently continuing its work, which has yet to be completed. On 10 June, the Council heard a communique from Fr. Michael Czerny of the Pontifical Council "Justice and Peace" regarding the Pope's new encyclical and the preparation for its publication.
The meeting that took place from 14–16 September discussed "The proposal for a new Congregation, provisionally entitled "Laity, Family and Life", was again taken into consideration", said Fr. Lombardi. "In this regard Dionigi Cardinal Tettamanzi, designated by the Pope in recent months to prepare a study on the feasibility of the project, was heard. At the end of their reflections the Council presented to the Pope a proposal orientated towards the implementation of the project. Consideration of the proposal for a new Congregation dedicated to "Charity, Justice and Peace" was resumed and further reflections were made without yet reaching, however, a conclusive proposal by the Council.
The meetings discussed the appointment of new bishops, or more specifically on the qualities and requisites for candidates in view of the needs of today's world, and on the related issue of information gathering. Naturally the theme will need to be explored further and developed in collaboration with the competent Dicasteries concerned. The Prefect of the Secretariat for Communications reported to the Council on the first steps taken so far and in particular on the appointment of a group to draw up the Statutes for the new Dicastery. The working group has been constituted and has already commenced activity. The regulations will subsequently be drafted and issued. The theme proposed during the last session of the Council regarding issues linked to the abuse of minors was again taken into consideration. The matter of how to implement proposals was explored in further depth, especially with regard to the possibility of accelerating the resolution of the many cases still pending. Cardinal Rodríguez Maradiaga was absent for health reasons.
During the meeting on 10 to 12 December 2015 the Pope developed extensively the theme of "collegiality", but also pointed out "the need to proceed with a healthy 'decentralization'." The Council returned to work on two new departments, which had previously been discussed on numerous occasions. The Department dedicated to "Laity and family life" – the establishment of which Pope Francis announced during the Synod (22 October) - was the subject of a detailed proposal by the Council to the Pope. The Department dedicated to "Justice, Peace and Migration" was subject to further considerations, in anticipation of creating the final proposal to be given to the Pope. The Council heard two reports on the reform of the economic structures of the Vatican, which were given by Cardinal Marx, Co-ordinator of the Council of Economy, and Cardinal George Pell, prefect for the Secretariat of Economy. The two Cardinals reported on the activities and achievements of the two institutions. In the course of his presentation, Cardinal Marx discussed the choice of an external auditor for the consolidated financial statements of the Vatican, PricewaterhouseCoopers. Cardinal Pell gave information about the establishment of a working group to reflect on the future of the economic issues of the Holy See and the Vatican City State, including its present state, and the control of expenditure and revenue.
The Council with Pope Francis for a day and a half, Monday 8 February, morning and afternoon, and Tuesday 9 in the morning. Cardinal Gracias, was absent for health reasons. His absence was expected since the month of December, as he was expected to undergo a previously scheduled surgical operation. As already expected at the end of the previous meeting, the first session consisted of a close examination of the Pope's discourse on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Synod of Bishops (17 October). This discourse, which develops extensively the theme of "synodality", noting at the same time "the need to promote a sound decentralisation", constitutes an important point of reference for the work of reforming the Curia. This was followed by a "final" reading of the proposals of the Council regarding the two new Dicasteries, mentioned previously: "Laity, family and life", and "Justice, peace, migration". The proposals were finalised and submitted to the Pope for his decisions. Cardinal O'Malley, reported on the activities of the Commission for the Protection of Minors. The legal and disciplinary issues that fall under the jurisdiction of other Dicasteries of the Curia will need to be examined in further detail. Cardinal Pell, reported on the status and implementation of reforms in the economic field. The cardinals received documentation on the so-called "vademecum" prepared by the Tribunal of the Roman Rota for the implementation of reform on canonical procedures for the declaration of nullity of marriage.
Meetings were held between 11–13 April, with the absence of Cardinal Gracias, for health reasons. Apart from the Wednesday morning session, which took place during the customary General Audience, Pope Francis himself participated in all of the meetings of the Council. In a press briefing on the meetings, Father Federico Lombardi, SJ, the Director of the Holy See Press Office, said Cardinals’ discussion focused largely on final considerations concerning the various Dicasteries of the Roman Curia, in view of a new Apostolic Constitution. In particular, the Cardinals re-read, and entrusted to the Pope, several texts relating to the proposal to create to new Dicasteries, dedicated to "Laity, Family, and Life" and to "Justice, Peace, and Migration." Father Lombardi said the Cardinals also took up several other topics in particular, the Council considered criteria for gathering information for the nomination of new bishops, in light of their identity and pastoral mission. They also discussed the significance and role of Nuncios. Additionally, the Council heard from two of their own members. Cardinal George Pell updated his colleagues on the work of the Secretariat for the Economy, while Cardinal Sean O'Malley discussed the activities of the Pontifical Council for the Protection of Minors. The final day of the Council's work, Father Lombardi said, was dedicated to organizing the results of the foregoing discussion, in order to craft a comprehensive proposal from the Council to the Pope, in view of a new Constitution for the Roman Curia.
The Council met from 6–8 June, a large part of the consultations was dedicated to discussing the reforms regarding the Secretariat of State, the Congregations for Catholic Education, for Oriental Churches, for the Clergy and for Bishops, as well as the Pontifical Councils for Culture, for Christian Unity and for Interreligious Dialogue. The results of previous consultations regarding the Congregations for the Doctrine of the Faith, for Worship and the Sacraments, for the Causes of Saints and for Consecrated Life, as well as the new Charity, Justice and Peace office, have been handed over to Pope Francis for his deliberations. Fr Lombardi said that the reforms were focused on the criteria of simplifying and harmonizing the work of the different offices, as well as exploring ways of decentralizing tasks to the different bishops conferences. Finally he noted that Cardinal Marx and Cardinal Pell discussed questions relating to the Council and the Secretariat for the Economy, while Mgr Dario Vigano reported on the continuing reform of the Vatican media offices, especially the process of integrating Vatican Radio and the Vatican Television Centre which is taking place this year.
Meetings of the Council were scheduled for 12–14 September and 12–14 December 2016.
From 13–15 February the Council of Cardinals met with the Pope during three days. All the members of the Council were present.
Pope Francis was absent during the second part of the session on Monday morning because of the "ad Limina Apostolorum" of the bishops of Costa Rica; and during the morning session of Wednesday 15 February because of the General Audience. He will be present to the session number 105 planned for this evening.
On 13 February, after the first consultation, the Cardinals, through the Press Office of the Holy See, released the following declaration:
"The Council of Cardinals initiated today its 18th working session.
The working sessions took place from 9:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and from 4:30 p.m. to 7 p.m. and were dedicated to further consideration of the different Dicasteries of the Curia: particularly, have continued the discussions about the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Propaganda Fide); the Congregation for the Oriental Churches; and the Pontifical Council for the Interreligious Dialogue.
The Cardinals began to examine the "Diaconate of Justice", and a considerable time was dedicated to the Tribunals: Apostolic Penitentiary, Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura and Tribunal of the Roman Rota. The Council has also studied, during these day, the process for the selection of candidates to the Episcopate.
Cardinal George Pell spoke about the work of the Secretariat for the Economy, entrusted to him, for the full implementation of the economic reform requested by the Pope, with particular attention to the activities of personnel training and human resources. The Prefect of the Secretariat for Communications, Dario Edoardo Viganò, presented the current state of the reform of the communications of the Holy See, after the unification of the Vatican Radio and the Vatican Television Center in the Dicastery entrusted to him. Working sessions were held with the Secretariat of State, the Secretariat for the Economy, Apsa and the Office of Labour to accompany this new phase of the reform. In addition, the plan to reestructure the radio frequency and the new policy for the world of social networks, was presented. Finally, the group reflected on the project to start the reform of the Vatican Publishing House.
The nineteenth meeting of the Council met with the Pope for three days: Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, 24–26 April. The working sessions took place in the mornings from 9-12:30 and in the afternoons from 16:30-19:00. The sessions were dedicated to further considerations on the various dicasteries of the Curia; in particular, there were continued discussions concerning the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation. The Cardinals also considered texts to propose to the Pope regarding the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue; the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts; and three tribunals: the Apostolic Penitentiary, the Apostolic Signatura, and the Roman Rota. During the meetings, the Council also studied the selection and formation of the personnel in the service of the Holy See, both clerics and members of the lay faithful. Officials and superiors from the Secretariat of State, from the Council for the Economy, and from the Labour Office of the Apostolic See took part in the discussions. Another important theme treated by the Council was the relationship between the Episcopal Conferences and the Roman Curia. Cardinal Pell gave an update on the work of the Secretariat for the Economy, with special attention to the review of the budget for the current year. Cardinal O’Malley updated the Council on the work of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of minors, focussing especially on the programme of global education, the last plenary assembly, and the visits to various dicasteries.
The Council of Cardinals met with the Pope for three days: Monday 12, Tuesday 13 and Wednesday 14 June. All members of the Council were present apart from Cardinal O’Malley. The sessions were dedicated to further consideration of the ways in which the Roman Curia can better serve the local Churches. For example, a larger consultation board made up also of members from consecrated life and the laity, for candidates proposed for appointment as bishop. Among other proposals, the possibility of transferring some functions from the Roman Dicasteries to the local bishops or episcopal councils, in a spirit of healthy decentralisation. For example, the transfer of the Dicastery for the Clergy to the Episcopal Conference for examination and authorisation for: the priestly ordination of an unmarried permanent deacon; the passage to new marriage for a widowed permanent deacon; the request for priestly ordination by a widowed permanent deacon. The Council gave further consideration to various Dicasteries of the Curia, in particular the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. The Council studied and reread texts proposed for submission to the Pope regarding the Dicastery for Interreligious Dialogue; the Dicastery for the Oriental Churches; the Dicastery for Legislative Texts; and the three tribunals. Cardinal Pell provided an update on the work of the Secretariat for the Economy, of which he is the prefect. Particular attention was paid to the steps ahead made in the process of planning of economic resources and in monitoring financial plans for the first trimester of 2017 which have substantially confirmed, with few exceptions, the budget data. Shortly the budget process will begin for 2018, and the monitoring for the second trimester of 2017. The prefect of the Secretariat for Communications, Msgr. Dario Edoardo Viganò, presented a report on the state of the reform of the communication system of the Holy See; he illustrated the economic and management progress of the SPC, demonstrating positive results. He then explained the projects in the realization phase of the new communication system, in accordance with the Holy Father's recent address on the occasion of the Dicastery's first Plenary.
The 21st meeting took place form 11–13 September. The aim of this 21st session of the C9 was to reflect on the ongoing reforms of the Curia. Pope Francis joined the group of his closest advisors for the Tuesday morning and afternoon sessions having returned from Colombia.
Cardinal Pell and Cardinal Monsengwo Pasinya, were unable to attend this week's meeting. A main focus for discussion at this encounter was how the Curia can be an instrument of evangelization at the service of the pope and the local Churches. In particular the cardinals talked about the need for decentralisation, the role of the nunciatures, the selection of personnel, especially the need for a less clerical and more international staff, with an increase in the number of women and young people. The cardinals also discussed Pope Francis’ recent motu proprio ‘Magnum Principium’, reflecting on how it may affect the work of the Congregation for Divine Worship, and they reviewed the statutes of the office for Laity, Family and Life.
Three other prelates gave presentations about the work of their offices: Archbishop Salvatore Fisichella spoke about his Council for New Evangelisation, Cardinal O’Malley updated the cardinals on the work of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, and at the final session, Cardinal Filoni spoke to the cardinals about the work of his 'Propaganda Fide' Congregation.
The next meeting of the C9 is scheduled to take place in the Vatican from 11 to 13 December.
The Council met from 11–13 June. Their work largely focused on finalizing the draft proposals for the new Apostolic Constitution of the Roman Curia, whose provisional title is Praedicate Evangelium. It said the C-9 group has prepared the first text of proposals ready to deliver to Pope Francis for him to read and offer any feedback he views as useful or necessary.This Apostolic Constitution is intended to revise Pastor Bonus.
The Council again meet from 10–12 September to discuss reform of the Roman Curia.The meeting will also involve discussion about how to provide "necessary clarification" concerning a letter confirming Vatican knowledge of reports of sex abuse against former prominent Cardinal Theodore McCarrick as early as November 2000. Pope Francis presided over the meeting.
The majority of the Council's meetings were dedicated to the final adjustments to the draft of the new Apostolic Constitution. The Council has already submitted to the Holy Father the provisional text which will however undergo stylistic revision and a canonistic review.
The meeting resulting in a February 2019 abuse summit involving Catholic Bishops.
On October 25, 2018, Pope Francis appointed Rev. Msgr. Marco Mellino, who serves as vicar general of the diocese of Alba, to serve as Adjunct Secretary to the Council of Cardinals and that Mellino was now tasked with assisting the Pope in drawing up the new Apostolic Constitution which revises Pastor Bonus.
The next meeting of the Council of Cardinals took place on 10–12 December 2018. During the meeting five members of the Council meet to discuss how to contain growing costs to the Vatican budget.The February 2019 Bishops summit on sex abuse was also discussed as well. They also agreed to focus on financing the Dicastery for Communication. Cardinal Parolin, the only current member of the Council with a high ranking position in the Roman Curia, did not attend due to obligations in Morocco which involved the signing of the Global Compact for Migration.
The next meeting of the Council of Cardinals would also coincide with the Bishops sex abuse summit,which took place on 21–24 February 2019.
In late April 2019, a final draft of a new apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, developed in consultation with the Council and titled Praedicate Evangelium (“Preach the Gospel”), was submitted to national bishops’ conferences and a variety of other bodies. With the conclusion of the Council's work on that reform, Maradiaga said the Council would next consider updates to canon law, the role of women, and financial management.
Between 25 and 27 June 2019, the Council held another meeting, where they further reviewed the new apostolic constitution, which has yet to go into effect, and mainly focused on how to enforce the new apostolic constitution as well.The Council agreed to focus on reforming the Catholic mission rather than Catholic doctrine.
The Council met from 17-19 September with Cardinals Parolin, Rodríguez Maradiaga, S.D.B., Marx, O’Malley, O.F.M. Cap., Bertello and Gracias present. Also present were the secretary of the Council, Bishop Marcello Semeraro, and the adjunct secretary, Bishop Marco Mellino. Pope Francis also participated in the meetings as permitted by commitments. The activity focused on the re-reading and modification of the draft of the new Apostolic Constitution on the basis of the contributions from the Episcopal Conferences, observations of the dicasteries and the suggestions made by the bodies concerned. This first reading, which has come to an end, was a phase of listening and reflection responding to the Holy Father's indications with regard to communion and synodality.
The next meeting took place on 2, 3 and 4 December 2019. The Cardinals discussed the draft of the new Apostolic Constitution, focusing on the relationship between the Roman Curia and the episcopal conferences; and on the presence of the lay faithful in decision making roles in the Church. Cardinal Czerny, S.J., delivered a report on the Synod for the Amazon. Cardinal Marx spoke about the “Synodal Path” being undertaken by the Church in Germany.
The Council met from 17-19 February. This 33rd meeting re-read the new apostolic constitution that will replace Pastor Bonus. The meeting also considered amendments to the draft. Cardinals Parolin, Rodríguez Maradiaga, Marx, O'Malley, Bertello, and Gracias were present. The secretary of the Council, Bishop Marcello Semeraro, and the adjunct secretary Bishop Marco Mellino were also present.
The reading of the text will continue at the next session, set for April 2020.
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope's name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular churches and provides the central organization for the church to advance its objectives.
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia, seated at the Palace of the Holy Office in Rome. It was founded to defend the church from heresy; today, it is the body responsible for promulgating and defending Catholic doctrine. Formerly known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, it is informally known in many Catholic countries as the Holy Office, and between 1908 and 1965 was officially known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.
A dicastery is a department of the Roman Curia, the administration of the Holy See through which the pope directs the Roman Catholic Church. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus (1988), includes this definition:
By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Congregations, Tribunals, Councils and Offices, namely, the Apostolic Camera, the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See and the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, S.D.B. is a Salesian and Cardinal of the Catholic Church from Honduras. He is the current Archbishop of Tegucigalpa, President of Caritas Internationalis and was President of the Latin American Episcopal Conference (CELAM) from 1995 to 1999. Rodríguez was elevated to the cardinalate in 2001. He was the Vatican's spokesman with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, on the issue of Third World debt.
The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the central papal governing bureaucracy of the Catholic Church. It is headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State and performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into three sections, the Section for General Affairs, the Section for Relations with States, and, since 2017, the Section for Diplomatic Staff.
In the Roman Curia, a congregation is a type of department of the Curia. They are second highest-ranking departments, ranking below the two Secretariats, and above the pontifical councils, pontifical commissions, tribunals and offices.
Franc Rode is a Slovenian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, having served as prefect from 2004 to 2011. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 2006.
A pontifical council is a mid-sized department or dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central organization responsible for assisting the pope in the governance and oversight of Catholic Church. Such a council has a cardinal or archbishop as its president and is restricted in its activities in comparison with the larger parts of the Curia.
Francesco Coccopalmerio is an Italian cardinal. He was president of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts from his appointment by Pope Benedict XVI on 15 February 2007 until his resignation was accepted by Pope Francis on 7 April 2018. He spent his early years in the Archdiocese of Milan and became an auxiliary bishop in 1993. He moved to the Roman Curia in 2000.
Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches. It thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world".
Stanisław Marian Ryłko is a Polish Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He held positions in the Roman Curia beginning in 1987 and was president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity from 2003 to 2016. He was made a cardinal in 2007. He has been Archpriest of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore since 28 December 2016.
The Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People was a dicastery of the Roman Curia. The Council, established by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, was dedicated to the spiritual welfare of migrant and itinerant people.
Pope Paul VI's reform of the Roman Curia was accomplished through a series of decrees beginning in 1964, principally through the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae issued on 15 August 1967.
The history of the Roman Curia, the administrative apparatus responsible for managing the affairs of the Holy See and the Catholic Church, can be traced to the 11th century when informal methods of administration began to take on a more organized structure and eventual a bureaucratic form. The Curia has undergone a series of renewals and reforms, including a major overhaul following the loss of the Papal States, which fundamentally altered the range and nature of the Curia's responsibilities, removing many of an entirely secular nature.
The law of Vatican City State consists of many forms, the most important of which is the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State. The Code of Penal Procedure governs tribunals and the Lateran Treaty governs relations with the Italian Republic.
Catholic laity are the ordinary members of the Catholic Church who are neither clergy nor recipients of Holy Orders or vowed to life in a religious order or congregation. The laity forms the majority of the estimated over one billion Catholics in the world.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the Synod of Bishops is an advisory body for the Pope. It is described in the Code of Canon Law (CIC) as "a group of bishops who have been chosen from different regions of the world and meet together at fixed times to foster closer unity between the Roman Pontiff and bishops, to assist the Roman Pontiff with their counsel in the preservation and growth of faith and morals and in the observance and strengthening of ecclesiastical discipline, and to consider questions pertaining to the activity of the Church in the world."
The Secretariat for the Economy is a dicastery of the Roman Curia with authority over all economic activities of the Holy See and the Vatican City State.
The Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors is an institution within the Roman Curia of the Catholic Church instituted by Pope Francis on 22 March 2014. The commission received its statutes on 8 May 2015 as part of the Catholic Church's efforts to deal with the scandal of sex abuse of minors. Its singular purpose is to propose initiatives that could protect children from pedophiles in the church. It is headed by Boston's Cardinal Archbishop, Sean P. O'Malley, O.F.M. Cap., who was selected by Pope Francis for this task; earlier O'Malley had been sent to Boston to correct troubles relating to the issue under his predecessor, Bernard Cardinal Law. The creation of the commission was announced in 2013 after Francis was criticized by victims' groups who questioned his understanding of the full scope of the problem. Following a slow start, the commission has, as of 2015, begun meeting with bishops and sponsoring training for church staff worldwide. The most significant proposal of the commission, the creation of an in-house Vatican tribunal to judge cases of bishops who are accused of failing to protect victims, was approved by Francis but has not been implemented.
The Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life is a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Pope Francis announced its creation on 15 August 2016, effective 1 September 2016. It takes over the functions and responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family. It has responsibility "for the promotion of the life and apostolate of the lay faithful, for the pastoral care of the family and its mission according to God's plan and for the protection and support of human life."