Republic of China (1912–1949)

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Republic of China

Chunghwa Minkuo
Flag anthem
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
Republic of China (orthographic projection, historical).svg
Location and maximum extent of the territory claimed by the Republic of China (1945).
Capital Peking (1912–1928)
Nanking (1927–1949)
Chungking [lower-alpha 1] (1937–1946)
Largest city Shanghai
Official languages Standard Chinese
Recognised national languages Tibetan
and other languages
Official script
see Religion in China
Demonym(s) Chinese [1]
Government Federal semi-presidential republic under Beiyang rule (1912–1928)
One-party state under a military dictatorship (1928–1946)
Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic (1946–1949)
Sun Yat-sen (first, provisional)
Li Zongren (last in Chinese mainland, acting)
Tang Shaoyi (first)
He Yingqin (last in Chinese mainland)
National Assembly
Legislative Yuan
10 October 1911 [lower-alpha 2] –12 February 1912 [lower-alpha 3]
1 January 1912
  Beiyang government in Peking
  Nationalist government in Nanking
1946–1950 [lower-alpha 4]
7 July 1937 [lower-alpha 5] –2 September 1945 [lower-alpha 6]
 People's Republic of China proclaimed
1 October 1949
7 December 1949
191211,077,380 km2 (4,277,000 sq mi)
19469,676,204 km2 (3,736,003 sq mi)
Time zone UTC+5:30 to +8:30 (Kunlun to Changpai Standard Times)
Driving side right
ISO 3166 code CN
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of China (1889-1912).svg Qing dynasty
People's Republic of China Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Mongolian People's Republic Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1945-1992).svg

The Republic of China (ROC) controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. Its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.

Xinhai Revolution revolution in China

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China (ROC). The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.

Qing dynasty former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

Taipei Special municipality in Republic of China

Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan. Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City that sits about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located in the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed. The basin is bounded by the relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.


In 1921, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (KMT) established a rival government in Canton City, Canton Province, together with the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of North China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun Yat-sen's death, started the Northern Expedition military campaign in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was completed in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred communists in Shanghai, which forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War.

Kuomintang political party in the Republic of China

The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei, that was founded in 1911, and is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

Government of the Republic of China in Guangzhou Historical government in Guangdong

The Government of the Republic of China was the government that led the Second Constitutional Protection Movement. The military junta was replaced by a presidential system.

Guangzhou Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.

There were industrialization and modernization, but also conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remnant warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building took a backseat to the Second Sino-Japanese War when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 that turned into a full-scale invasion. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War quickly resumed in 1946 between the KMT and CPC, with both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the Cold War from the USA and USSR, respectively. During this period, the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland. The Government of the Republic of China moved from Nanking to Taipei in 1949, controlling only the Taiwan area after 1949.

Empire of Japan Empire in the Asia-Pacific region between 1868–1947

The Empire of Japan was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931.

Imperial Japanese Army Official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1868 to 1945

The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.


Republic of China
ROC (Chinese characters).svg
"Republic of China" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 中華民國
Simplified Chinese 中华民国
Postal Chunghwa Minkuo
Traditional Chinese 中國
Simplified Chinese 中国
Literal meaningMiddle or Central State [2]
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་དམངས་གཙོའི།
Zhuang name
Zhuang Cunghvaz Minzgoz
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Дундад иргэн улс
Mongolian script ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ
Uyghur name
Uyghur جۇڭخۇا مىنگو
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
Romanization Dulimbai irgen' gurun

The official name of the state in the mainland was the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" (Zhōngguó ( 中國 )) to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"), [lower-alpha 7] a term which also developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, [lower-alpha 8] and the name was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. [4]

Zhou dynasty Chinese dynasty

The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. The military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted initially from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years.

Demesne Type of property

In the feudal system, the demesne was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and occupation or support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants. In England, royal demesne is the land held by the Crown, and ancient demesne is the legal term for the land held by the king at the time of the Domesday Book.

Eastern Zhou geographic region

The Eastern Zhou was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It is divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States.

The ROC also used alternate names throughout its existence were Republican China or Republican Era, [6] [7] as well as the Beiyang government (from 1912 to 1928), and the Nationalist government (from 1928 to 1947).

Beiyang government Government of the Republic of China heavily influenced by warlords and military factions

The Beiyang government, also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government or the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking between 1912 and 1928. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government. The name derives from the Beiyang Army, which dominated its politics with the rise of Yuan Shikai, who was a general of the Qing dynasty. After his death, the army split into various factions competing for power, in a period called the Warlord Era. Although the government and the state were nominally under civilian control under a constitution, the Beiyang generals were effectively in charge of it. Nevertheless, the government enjoyed legitimacy abroad along with diplomatic recognition, had access to tax and customs revenue, and could apply for foreign financial loans.

Nationalist government Government of the Republic of China between 1925 and 1948

The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China or the Second Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 and 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang. The name derives from the Kuomintang's translated name "Nationalist Party". The government was in place until it was replaced by the current Government of the Republic of China in the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China.


History of China.png
History of China
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BCE
Xia c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE
Shang c. 1600 – c. 1046 BCE
Zhou c. 1046 – 256 BCE
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn
    Warring States
Qin 221–206 BCE
Han 202 BCE – 220 CE
  Western Han
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei , Shu and Wu
Jin 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin Sixteen Kingdoms
Northern and Southern dynasties
Sui 581–618
Tang 618–907
  (Second Zhou 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms

Liao 907–1125
Song 960–1279
  Northern Song Western Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan 1271–1368
Ming 1368–1644
Qing 1636–1912
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic of China 1949–present
Sun Yat-sen proclaiming the establishment of the ROC in 1912 Republic of China proclaimtion.png
Sun Yat-sen proclaiming the establishment of the ROC in 1912

A republic was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911, successfully overthrowing the Qing dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. [8] From its founding until 1949 it was based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), Japanese invasion (1937–45), and a full-scale civil war (1927–49), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade (1927–37), when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang (KMT) under an authoritarian one-party military dictatorship. [9]

Wuchang Uprising 1911 Xinhai Revolution

The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, China on October 10, 1911, which was the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution that successfully overthrew China's last imperial dynasty. It was led by elements of the New Army, influenced by revolutionary ideas from Tongmenghui. The uprising and the eventual revolution directly led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty with five millennia of imperial rule, and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), which commemorates the anniversary of the uprising's starting date of 10th October as the National Day of the Republic of China.

Dynasties in Chinese history One method of organizing Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in the history of China from 21st century BC.

Chinese Civil War 1927–1950 civil war in China

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. Although particular attention is paid to the four years of Chinese Communist Revolution from 1945 to 1949, the war actually started in August 1927, with the White Terror at the end of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, and essentially ended when major hostilities between the two sides ceased in 1950. The conflict took place in two stages, the first between 1927 and 1937, and the second from 1946 to 1950; the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 was an interlude in which the two sides were united against the forces of Japan. The Civil War marked a major turning point in modern Chinese history, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China and establishing the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, forcing the Republic of China (ROC) to retreat to Taiwan. It resulted in a lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, with the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in mainland China both officially claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

At the end of World War II in 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and its island groups to the Allies, and Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control. The communist takeover of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 left the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) with control over only Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands. With the 1949 loss of mainland China in the civil war, the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and the KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital. [10] The Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China [11] [12] and founded the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Beijing.


Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic. Chinese republic forever.jpg
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic.

In 1912, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established to replace the monarchy. [8] The Qing dynasty that preceded the republic experienced a century of instability throughout the 19th century, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. [13] The ongoing instability eventually led to the outburst of Boxer Rebellion in 1900, whose attacks on foreigners led to the invasion by the Eight Nation Alliance. China signed the Boxer Protocol and paid a large indemnity to the foreign powers: 450 million taels of fine silver (around $333 million or £67 million at the then current exchange rates). [14] A program of institutional reform proved too little and too late. Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged its existence until 1912. [15] [16]

The establishment of the Chinese Republic developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing government on 10 October 1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC's national day, also known as the "Double Ten Day". On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected president by the Nanjing assembly with representatives from seventeen provinces. On 1 January 1912, he was officially inaugurated and pledged "to overthrow the despotic government led by the Manchu, consolidate the Republic of China and plan for the welfare of the people". [17]

Sun, however, lacked the necessary military strength to defeat the Qing government by force. As a compromise, the new republic negotiated with the commander of the Beiyang Army, Yuan Shikai, with the promise of presidency in the republic if he was to remove the Qing emperor force. Yuan agreed to the deal, and the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty, Puyi, was forced to abdicate in 1912, and Yuan was officially elected president of the ROC in 1913. [13] [18] He ruled by military power and ignored the republican institutions established by his predecessor, threatening to execute Senate members who disagreed with his decisions. He soon dissolved the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) party, banned "secret organizations" (which implicitly included the KMT), and ignored the provisional constitution. An attempt at a democratic election in 1912 ended with the assassination of the elected candidate by a man recruited by Yuan. Ultimately, Yuan declared himself Emperor of China in 1915. [19] The new ruler of China tried to increase centralization by abolishing the provincial system; however, this move angered the gentry along with the provincial governors, usually military men. Many provinces declared independence and became warlord states. Increasingly unpopular and deserted by his supporters, Yuan gave up being Emperor in 1916 and died of natural causes shortly after. [20] [21]

China declined into a period of warlordism. Sun, forced into exile, returned to Guangdong province in the south with the help of warlords in 1917 and 1922, and set up successive rival governments to the Beiyang government in Beijing; he re-established the KMT in October 1919. Sun's dream was to unify China by launching an expedition to the north. However, he lacked military support and funding to make it a reality. [22]

Meanwhile, the Beiyang government struggled to hold on to power, and an open and wide-ranging debate evolved regarding how China should confront the West. In 1919, a student protest against the government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, considered unfair by Chinese intellectuals, led to the May Fourth movement. These demonstrations were aimed at spreading Western influence to replace Chinese culture. It is also in this intellectual climate that the influence of Marxism spread and became more popular. It eventually led to the founding of the Communist Party of China in 1921. [23]

Nanjing decade

With help from Germany, Chinese industry and its military were improved just prior to the war against Imperial Japan. Sino-german cooperation.png
With help from Germany, Chinese industry and its military were improved just prior to the war against Imperial Japan.

After Sun's death in March 1925, Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of the KMT. In 1926, Chiang led the Northern Expedition through China with the intention of defeating the Beiyang warlords and unifying the country. Chiang received the help of the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communists; however, he soon dismissed his Soviet advisers. He was convinced, not without reason, that they wanted to get rid of the KMT (also known as the Chinese Nationalists) and take over control. [24] Chiang decided to strike first and purged the Communists, killing thousands of them. At the same time, other violent conflicts were taking place in China; in the South, where the Communists had superior numbers, Nationalist supporters were being massacred. These events eventually led to the Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists. Chiang Kai-shek pushed the Communists into the interior as he sought to destroy them, and established a government with Nanking as its capital in 1927. [25] By 1928, Chiang's army overturned the Beiyang government and unified the entire nation, at least nominally, beginning the so-called Nanjing Decade.[ citation needed ]

According to Sun Yat-sen's theory, the KMT was to rebuild China in three phases: a phase of military rule through which the KMT would take over power and reunite China by force; a phase of political tutelage; and finally a constitutional democratic phase. [26] In 1930, the Nationalists, having taken over power militarily and reunified China, started the second phase, promulgating a provisional constitution and beginning the period of so-called "tutelage". [27] The KMT was criticized for instituting authoritarianism, but claimed it was attempting to establish a modern democratic society. Among other things, it created at that time the Academia Sinica, the Central Bank of China, and other agencies. In 1932, China sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games. Laws were passed and campaigns mounted to promote the rights of women. The ease and speed of communication also allowed a focus on social problems, including those of the villages. The Rural Reconstruction Movement was one of many which took advantage of the new freedom to raise social consciousness.[ citation needed ]

Historians such as Edmund Fung argue that establishing a democracy in China at that time was not possible. The nation was at war and divided between Communists and Nationalists. Corruption within the government and lack of direction also prevented any significant reform from taking place. Chiang realized the lack of real work being done within his administration and told the State Council: "Our organization becomes worse and worse... many staff members just sit at their desks and gaze into space, others read newspapers and still others sleep." [28] The Nationalist government wrote a draft of the constitution on 5 May 1936. [29]

During this time a series of massive wars took place in western China, including the Kumul Rebellion, the Sino-Tibetan War and the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. Although the central government was nominally in control of the entire country during this period, large areas of China remained under the semi-autonomous rule of local warlords, provincial military leaders or warlord coalitions. Nationalist rule was strongest in the eastern regions around the capital Nanjing, but regional militarists such as Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan retained considerable local authority. The Central Plains War in 1930, the Japanese aggression in 1931 and the Red Army's Long March in 1934 led to more power for the central government, but there continued to be foot-dragging and even outright defiance, as in the Fujian Rebellion of 1933–34.[ citation needed ]

Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

China has been resisting the aggression of the Imperial Japan since 1931. "China-First to Fight - NARA - 513567.tif
China has been resisting the aggression of the Imperial Japan since 1931.

Few Chinese had any illusions about Japanese desires on China. Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria in September 1931 and established ex-Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932. The loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the Kuomintang economy. The League of Nations, established at the end of World War I, was unable to act in the face of the Japanese defiance.

The Japanese began to push from south of the Great Wall into northern China and the coastal provinces. Chinese fury against Japan was predictable, but anger was also directed against Chiang and the Nanking government, which at the time was more preoccupied with anti-Communist extermination campaigns than with resisting the Japanese invaders. The importance of "internal unity before external danger" was forcefully brought home in December 1936, when Chiang Kai-shek, in an event now known as the Xi'an Incident, was kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang and forced to ally with the Communists against the Japanese in the Second Kuomintang-CCP United Front against Japan.

The Chinese resistance stiffened after 7 July 1937, when a clash occurred between Chinese and Japanese troops outside Beiping (Later Beijing) near the Marco Polo Bridge. This skirmish led to open, though undeclared, warfare between China and Japan. Shanghai fell after a three-month battle during which Japan suffered extensive casualties, both in its army and navy. The capital of Nanking fell in December 1937. It was followed by an orgy of mass murders and rapes known as the Nanking Massacre. The national capital was briefly at Wuhan, then removed in an epic retreat to Chongqing, the seat of government until 1945. In 1940 the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime was set up with its capital in Nanking, proclaiming itself the legitimate "Republic of China" in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek's government, though its claims were significantly hampered due to its nature as a Japanese puppet state controlling limited amounts of territory, along with its subsequent defeat at the end of the war.

The United Front between the Kuomintang and CCP took place with salutary effects for the beleaguered CCP, despite Japan's steady territorial gains in northern China, the coastal regions and the rich Yangtze River Valley in central China. After 1940 conflicts between the Kuomintang and Communists became more frequent in the areas not under Japanese control. The entrance of the United States into the Pacific War after 1941 changed the nature of their relationship. The Communists expanded their influence wherever opportunities presented themselves through mass organizations, administrative reforms and the land- and tax-reform measures favoring the peasants and the spread of their organizational network, while the Kuomintang attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence. Meanwhile, northern China was infiltrated politically by Japanese politicians in Manchukuo using facilities such as Wei Huang Gong.

In 1945, the Republic of China emerged from the war nominally a great military power but actually a nation economically prostrate and on the verge of all-out civil war. The economy deteriorated, sapped by the military demands of foreign war and internal strife, by spiraling inflation and by Nationalist profiteering, speculation and hoarding. Starvation came in the wake of the war, and millions were rendered homeless by floods and the unsettled conditions in many parts of the country. The situation was further complicated by an Allied agreement at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 that brought Soviet troops into Manchuria to hasten the termination of war against Japan. Although the Chinese had not been present at Yalta, they had been consulted and had agreed to have the Soviets enter the war in the belief that the Soviet Union would deal only with the Kuomintang government.

After the end of the war in August 1945, the Nationalist Government moved back to Nanjing. With American help, Nationalist troops moved to take the Japanese surrender in North China. The Soviet Union, as part of the Yalta agreement allowing a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria, dismantled and removed more than half the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese. The Soviet presence in northeast China enabled the Communists to move in long enough to arm themselves with the equipment surrendered by the withdrawing Japanese army. The problems of rehabilitating the formerly Japanese-occupied areas and of reconstructing the nation from the ravages of a protracted war were staggering.

Post-World War II

During World War II, the United States has become increasingly involved in Chinese affairs. As an ally, it embarked in late 1941 on a program of massive military and financial aid to the hard-pressed Nationalist Government. In January 1943, both the United States and the United Kingdom led the way in revising their unequal treaties with China from the past. [30] [31] Within a few months a new agreement was signed between the United States and the Republic of China for the stationing of American troops in China for the common war effort against Japan. In December 1943 the Chinese Exclusion Acts of the 1880s and subsequent laws enacted by the United States Congress to restrict Chinese immigration into the United States were repealed.

The wartime policy of the United States was initially to help China become a strong ally and a stabilizing force in postwar East Asia. As the conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communists intensified, however, the United States sought unsuccessfully to reconcile the rival forces for a more effective anti-Japanese war effort. Following the Surrender of Japan, the administration of Taiwan was handed over from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945. [32] Toward the end of the war, United States Marines were used to hold Beiping (Beijing) and Tianjin against a possible Soviet incursion, and logistic support was given to Kuomintang forces in north and northeast China. To further this end, on 30 September 1945 the 1st Marine Division arrived in China, charged with security in the areas of the Shandong Peninsula and the eastern Hebei province. [33] During the war, China was one of the Big Four Allies of World War II and later became the Four Policemen, which was a precursor to the United Nations Security Council. [34]

Through the mediating influence of the United States a military truce was arranged in January 1946, but battles between the Kuomintang and Communists soon resumed. Public opinion of the administrative incompetence of the Nationalist government was escalated and incited by the Communists in the nationwide student protest against mishandling of the Shen Chong rape case in early 1947 and another national protest against monetary reforms later that year. Realizing that no American efforts short of large-scale armed intervention could stop the coming war, the United States withdrew the American mission, headed by Gen. George Marshall, in early 1947. The Chinese Civil War became more widespread; battles raged not only for territories but also for the allegiance of cross-sections of the population. The United States aided the Nationalists with massive economic loans and weapons but no combat support.

The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei. Movement KMTretreat.svg
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.

Belatedly, the Republic of China government sought to enlist popular support through internal reforms. The effort was in vain, however, because of rampant government corruption and the accompanying political and economic chaos. By late 1948 the Kuomintang position was bleak. The demoralized and undisciplined National Revolutionary Army proved to be no match for the motivated and disciplined Communist People's Liberation Army, earlier known as the Red Army. The Communists were well established in the north and northeast. Although the Kuomintang had an advantage in numbers of men and weapons, controlled a much larger territory and population than their adversaries and enjoyed considerable international support, they were exhausted by the long war with Japan and in-fighting among various generals. They were also losing the propaganda war to the Communists, with a population weary of Kuomintang corruption and yearning for peace.

In January 1949, Beiping was taken by the Communists without a fight, and its name changed back to Beijing. Following the capture of Nanjing on 23 April, major cities passed from Kuomintang to Communist control with minimal resistance through November. In most cases the surrounding countryside and small towns had come under Communist influence long before the cities. Finally, on 1 October 1949, Communists led by Mao Zedong founded the People's Republic of China. During those periods, Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law in May 1949 whilst a few hundred thousand Nationalist troops and two million refugees, predominantly from the government and business community, fled from mainland China to Taiwan; there remained in China itself only isolated pockets of resistance. On 7 December 1949 Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan, the temporary capital of the Republic of China.

During the civil war both the Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities with millions of non-combatants killed by both sides. [35] Benjamin Valentino has estimated atrocities in the Chinese Civil War resulted in the death of between 1.8 million and 3.5 million people between 1927 and 1949. Atrocities include deaths from forced conscription and massacres. [36]


The first Chinese national government was established on 1 January 1912, in Nanjing, with Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. Provincial delegates were sent to confirm the authority of the national government, and they later also formed the first parliament. The power of this national government was limited and short-lived, with generals controlling both central and northern provinces of China. The limited acts passed by this government included the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty and some economic initiatives. The parliament's authority became nominal; violations of the Constitution by Yuan were met with half-hearted motions of censure, and Kuomintang members of the parliament that gave up their membership in the KMT were offered 1,000 pounds. Yuan maintained power locally by sending military generals to be provincial governors or by obtaining the allegiance of those already in power.

When Yuan died, the parliament of 1913 was reconvened to give legitimacy to a new government. However, the real power of the time passed to military leaders, forming the warlord period. The impotent government still had its use; when World War I began, several Western powers and Japan wanted China to declare war on Germany, in order to liquidate German holdings.

The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which states that "[the ROC] shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people." [37]

In February 1928, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 2nd Kuomintang National Congress held in Nanjing passed the Reorganization of the Nationalist Government Act. This act stipulated that the Nationalist Government was to be directed and regulated under the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, with the Committee of the Nationalist Government being elected by KMT Central Committee. Under the Nationalist Government were seven ministries – Interior, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Transport, Justice, Agriculture and Mines, Commerce in addition institutions such as the Supreme Court, Control Yuan and the General Academy.

Nationalist government of Nanking - nominally ruling over entire China during 1930s Nationalist government of Nanking - nominally ruling over entire China, 1930 (2675972715).jpg
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China during 1930s

With the promulgation of the Organic Law of the Nationalist Government in October 1928, the government was reorganized into five different branches or Yuan, namely the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan as well as the Control Yuan. The Chairman of the National Government was to be the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as the first Chairman of the Nationalist Government, a position he would retain until 1931. The Organic Law also stipulated that the Kuomintang, through its National Congress and Central Executive Committee, would exercise sovereign power during the period of political tutelage, and the KMT's Political Council would guide and superintend the Nationalist Government in the execution of important national affairs, and that the council has the power to interpret or amend the organic law. [38]

Shortly after the Second Sino-Japanese War, the long-delayed constitutional convention was summoned to meet in Nanking in May 1946. Amidst heated debate, this convention adopted many demands from several parties, including the KMT and the Communist Party, into the Constitution. This Constitution was promulgated on 25 December 1946 and came into effect on 25 December 1947. Under it, the Central Government was divided into the President and the five Yuans, each responsible for one power of the Government. None was responsible to the other except for certain obligations such as the President appointing the head of the Executive Yuan. Ultimately the President and the Yuans reported to the National Assembly, which represented the will of the Citizens.

The first elections for the National Assembly occurred in January 1948, and the Assembly was summoned to meet in March 1948. It elected the President of the Republic on 21 March 1948, formally bringing an end to the KMT party rule started in 1928—though the President was a member of the KMT. These elections, though praised by at least one US observer, were poorly received by the Communist Party, which would soon start an open, armed insurrection.

Foreign relations

Before the Nationalist government was ousted from the mainland, the Republic of China had diplomatic relations with 59 countries such as Australia, Canada, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, France, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Panama, Siam, Soviet Union, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, and Vatican City. Most of these relations continued at least until the 1970s, and the Republic of China remained a member of the United Nations until 1971.

Administrative divisions

Provinces and Equivalents of the Republic of China (1945) [39]
Period Name (Current Name) Traditional
Pinyin AbbreviationCapitalChineseModern equivalent (if applicable)
Antung (Andong)安東Āndōng安 ānTunghwa (Tonghua)通化Now part of Jilin and Liaoning
Anhwei (Anhui)安徽Ānhuī皖 wǎnHofei (Hefei)合肥
Chahar (Chahar)察哈爾Cháhār察 cháChangyuan (Zhangjiakou)張垣(張家口)Now part of Inner Mongolia and Hebei
Chekiang (Zhejiang)浙江Zhèjiāng浙 zhèHangchow (Hangzhou)杭州
Fukien (Fujian)福建Fújiàn閩 mǐnFoochow (Fuzhou)福州
Hopeh (Hebei)河北Héběi冀 jìTsingyuan (Baoding)清苑(保定)
Heilungkiang (Heilongjiang)黑龍江Hēilóngjiāng黑 hēiPeian (Bei'an)北安
Hokiang (Hejiang)合江Héjiāng合 héChiamussu (Jiamusi)佳木斯Now part of Heilongjiang
Honan (Henan)河南Hénán豫 yùKaifeng (Kaifeng)開封
Hupeh (Hubei)湖北Húběi鄂 èWuchang (Wuchang)武昌
Hunan (Hunan)湖南Húnán湘 xiāngChangsha (Changsha)長沙
Hsingan (Xing'an)興安Xīng'ān興 xīngHailar (Hulunbuir)海拉爾(呼倫貝爾)Now part of Heilongjiang and Jilin
Jehol (Rehe)熱河Rèhé熱 rèChengteh (Chengde)承德Now part of Hebei, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia
Kansu (Gansu)甘肅Gānsù隴 lǒngLanchow (Lanzhou)蘭州
Kiangsu (Jiangsu)江蘇Jiāngsū蘇 sūChingkiang (Zhenjiang)鎮江
Kiangsi (Jiangxi)江西Jiāngxī贛 gànNanchang (Nanchang)南昌
Kirin (Jilin)吉林Jílín吉 jíKirin (Jilin)吉林
Kwangtung (Guangdong)廣東Guǎngdōng粵 yuèCanton (Guangzhou)廣州
Kwangsi (Guangxi)廣西Guǎngxī桂 guìKweilin (Guilin)桂林
Kweichow (Guizhou)貴州Guìzhōu黔 qiánKweiyang (Guiyang)貴陽
Liaopeh (Liaobei)遼北Liáoběi洮 táoLiaoyuan (Liaoyuan)遼源Now mostly part of Inner Mongolia
Liaoning (Liaoning)遼寧Liáoníng遼 liáoShenyang (Shenyang)瀋陽
Ningsia (Ningxia)寧夏Níngxià寧 níngYinchuan (Yinchuan)銀川
Nunkiang (Nenjiang)嫩江Nènjiāng嫩 nènTsitsihar (Qiqihar)齊齊哈爾The province was abolished in 1950 and incorporated with Heilongjiang province.
Shansi (Shanxi)山西Shānxī晉 jìnTaiyuan (Taiyuan)太原
Shantung (Shandong)山東Shāndōng魯 lǔTsinan (Jinan)濟南
Shensi (Shaanxi)陝西Shǎnxī陝 shǎnSian (Xi'an)西安
Sikang (Xikang)西康Xīkāng康 kāngKangting (Kangding)康定Now part of Tibet and Sichuan
Sinkiang (Xinjiang)新疆Xīnjiāng新 xīnTihwa (Ürümqi)迪化(烏魯木齊)
Suiyuan (Suiyuan)綏遠Suīyuǎn綏 suīKweisui (Hohhot)歸綏(呼和浩特)Now part of Inner Mongolia
Sungkiang (Songjiang)松江Sōngjiāng松 sōngMutankiang (Mudanjiang)牡丹江Now part of Heilongjiang
Szechwan (Sichuan)四川Sìchuān蜀 shǔChengtu (Chengdu)成都
Taiwan (Taiwan)臺灣Táiwān臺 tái Taipei 臺北
Tsinghai (Qinghai)青海Qīnghǎi青 qīngSining (Xining)西寧
Yunnan (Yunnan)雲南Yúnnán滇 diānKunming (Kunming)昆明
Special Administrative Region
Hainan (Hainan)海南Hǎinán瓊 qióngHaikow (Haikou)海口
Mongolia Area (Outer Mongolia)蒙古Ménggǔ蒙 méngKulun (Ulaanbaatar)庫倫(烏蘭巴托)Now part of State Mongolia, KMT recognized its independence in 1946, but overturned previous recognition in 1953
Tibet Area (Tibet Area)西藏Xīzàng藏 zàng Lhasa 拉薩
Special Municipalities
Nanking (Nanjing)南京Nánjīng京 jīng(Chinhuai District)秦淮區
Shanghai (Shanghai)上海Shànghǎi滬 hù(Huangpu District)黄浦區
Peiping or Peking (Beijing)北平Běipíng平 píng(Xicheng District)西城區
Tientsin (Tianjin)天津Tiānjīn津 jīn(Heping District)和平區
Chungking (Chongqing)重慶Chóngqìng渝 yú(Yuzhong District)渝中區
Hankow (Hankou, Wuhan)漢口Hànkǒu漢 hàn(Jiang'an District)江岸區
Canton (Guangzhou)廣州Guǎngzhōu穗 suì(Yuexiu District)越秀區
Sian (Xi'an)西安Xī'ān安 ān(Weiyang District)未央區
Tsingtao (Qingdao)青島Qīngdǎo膠 jiāo(Shinan District)市南區
Dairen (Dalian)大連Dàlián連 lián(Xigang District)西崗區
Mukden (Shenyang)瀋陽Shěnyáng瀋 shěn(Shenhe District)瀋河區
Harbin (Harbin)哈爾濱Hā'ěrbīn哈 hā(Nangang District)南崗區

The ROC had complicated relations with Mongolia (Outer Mongolia). As the successor of the Qing dynasty, the ROC claimed Outer Mongolia, and for a short time occupied it by Beiyang government. The Nationalist government of ROC recognised Mongolia's independence in the 1945 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship due to pressure from Soviet Union but the recognition was rescinded in 1953 during the Cold War. [40]


Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, around 1920, Shanghai SuzhouCreekOld2.jpg
Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, around 1920, Shanghai
A bill from 1930, early ROC 10 Custom Gold Units 1930.JPG
A bill from 1930, early ROC

In the early years of the Republic of China, the economy remained unstable as the country was marked by constant warfare between different regional warlord factions. The Beiyang government in Beijing were also experiencing constant change of leadership, and this political instability led to stagnation in economic development until Chinese reunification in 1928 by the Kuomintang. [41]

After the Kuomintang reunified the country in 1928, China entered a period of relative stability despite of ongoing isolated military conflicts and in the face of Japanese aggression in Shandong eventually Manchuria in 1931.

The 1930s in China were alternatively known as the "Nanjing Decade", in which economic growth was ongoing due to relative political stability compared to the previous decade. Chinese industries grew considerably from 1928 to 1931. While the economy was hit again by Japanese occupation of Manchuria in 1931 and the Great Depression from 1931 to 1935, industrial output recovered to their earlier peak by 1936. This is reflected by the trends in Chinese GDP. In 1932, China's GDP peaked at 28.8 billion, before falling to 21.3 billion by 1934 and recovering to 23.7 billion by 1935. [42] By 1930, foreign investment in China totaled 3.5 billion, with Japan leading (1.4 billion) and the United Kingdom at 1 billion. By 1948, however, the capital stock had halted with investment dropping to only 3 billion, with the US and Britain leading. [43]

However, the rural economy was hit hard by the Great Depression of the 1930s, in which an overproduction of agricultural goods lead to massive falling prices for China as well as an increase in foreign imports (as agricultural goods produced in western countries were "dumped" in China). In 1931, imports of rice in China amounted to 21 million bushels compared with 12 million in 1928. Other goods saw even more staggering increases. In 1932, 15 million bushels of grain were imported compared with 900,000 in 1928. This increased competition lead to a massive decline in Chinese agricultural prices (which were cheaper) and thus the income of rural farmers. In 1932, agricultural prices were 41 percent of 1921 levels. [44] Rural incomes had fallen to 57 percent of 1931 levels by 1934 in some areas. [44]

In 1937, Japan invaded China and the resulting warfare laid waste to China. Most of the prosperous east China coast was occupied by the Japanese, who carried out various atrocities such as the Nanjing Massacre in 1937. In one anti-guerilla sweep in 1942, the Japanese killed up to 200,000 civilians in a month. The war was estimated to have killed between 20 and 25 million Chinese, and destroyed all that Chiang had built up in the preceding decade. [45] Development of industries was severely hampered after the war by devastating conflict as well as the inflow of cheap American goods. By 1946, Chinese industries operated at 20% capacity and had 25% of the output of pre-war China. [46]

One effect of the war was a massive increase in government control of industries. In 1936, government-owned industries were only 15% of GDP. However, the ROC government took control of many industries in order to fight the war. In 1938, the ROC established a commission for industries and mines to control and supervise firms, as well as instilling price controls. By 1942, 70% of the capital of Chinese industry were owned by the government. [47]

Following the war with Japan, Chiang acquired Taiwan from Japan and renewed his struggle with the communists. However, the corruption of the KMT, as well as hyperinflation as a result of trying to fight the civil war, resulted in mass unrest throughout the Republic [48] and sympathy for the communists. In addition, the communists' promise to redistribute land gained them support among the massive rural population. In 1949, the communists captured Beijing and later Nanjing as well. The People's Republic of China was proclaimed on 1 October 1949. The Republic of China relocated to Taiwan where Japan had laid an educational groundwork. [49]


Beiyang Army troops on parade. Beiyang Army.jpg
Beiyang Army troops on parade.

The original military power of the Republic of China was inherited from the New Army, mainly the Beiyang Army. The Beiyang Army later split into many warlords and attacked each other. [50] The National Revolutionary Army, which was established by Sun Yat-sen in 1925 in Guangdong with the goal of reunifying China under the Kuomintang. Originally organized with Soviet aid as a means for the KMT to unify China against warlordism, the National Revolutionary Army fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition against the Chinese Beiyang Army warlords, in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Imperial Japanese Army, and in the Chinese Civil War against the People's Liberation Army.[ citation needed ]

The NRA during World War II Kmtarmy.JPG
The NRA during World War II

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China were nominally incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army (while retaining separate commands), but broke away to form the People's Liberation Army shortly after the end of the war. With the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, with the bulk of its forces forming the Republic of China Army, which retreated to Taiwan in 1949 after their defeat in the Chinese Civil War. Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army. [51]

See also


  1. As wartime provisional capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  2. Wuchang Uprising started.
  3. The last monarch of the Qing dynasty, Xuantong Emperor abdicated, Qing dynasty formally ended.
  4. Chinese Communist Revolution.
  5. Marco Polo Bridge Incident started.
  6. Surrender of Japan at the end of World War II.
  7. Although this is the present meaning of guó, in Old Chinese (when its pronunciation was something like /*qʷˤək/) [3] it meant the walled city of the Chinese and the areas they could control from them. [4]
  8. Its use is attested from the 6th-century Classic of History, which states "Huangtian bestowed the lands and the peoples of the central state to the ancestors" (皇天既付中國民越厥疆土于先王). [5]

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Constitution of the Republic of China constitution

The Constitution of the Republic of China is the supreme law in the Republic of China. It was ratified by the Kuomintang led National Constituent Assembly session on December 25, 1946 in Nanking and adopted on December 25, 1947. Though the Constitution was intended for the whole China, it has never extensively nor effectively been implemented in any territory. In response to the outbreak of Chinese Civil War by the time of the constitution's promulgation, the newly elected National Assembly soon ratified the Temporary Provisions against the Communist Rebellion on May 10, 1948. The Temporary Provisions symbols the country's entering into the state of emergency and granted the Kuomintang led government of the Republic of China extra-constitutional powers.

History of the Republic of China aspect of history

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Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen, courtesy name Delin, was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War. He served as vice-president and acting President of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution.

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This is a timeline of the Republic of China.

This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia.

First United Front united front

The First United Front, also known as the KMT–CPC Alliance, of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC), was formed in 1923 as an alliance to end warlordism in China. Together they formed the National Revolutionary Army and set out in 1926 on the Northern Expedition. The CPC joined the KMT as individuals, making use of KMT's superiority in numbers to help spread communism. The KMT, on the other hand, wanted to control the communists from within. Both parties had their own aims and the Front was unsustainable. In 1927, KMT leader Chiang Kai-shek purged the Communists from the Front while the Northern Expedition was still half-complete. This initiated a civil war between the two parties that lasted until the Second United Front was formed in 1936 to prepare for the coming Second Sino-Japanese War.

The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly in China as the April 12 Purge or April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang. Following the incident, conservative KMT elements carried out a full-scale purge of Communists in all areas under their control, and even more violent suppression occurred in Guangzhou and Changsha. The purge led to an open split between left and right wing factions in the KMT, with Chiang Kai-shek establishing himself as the leader of the right wing faction based in Nanjing, in opposition to the original left-wing KMT government based in Wuhan led by Wang Jingwei.

Nanjing decade historical period (1927–1937) in China; began when Chiang Kaishek took Nanjing from Sun Chuanfang during the Northern Expedition (1927) and made it the capital; ended when the 2nd Sino-Japanese War started (1937) and the government retreated to Wuhan

The Nanjing decade is an informal name for the decade from 1927 to 1937 in the Republic of China. It began when Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek took Nanjing from Zhili clique warlord Sun Chuanfang halfway through the Northern Expedition in 1927. Chiang declared it to be the national capital despite the existence of a left-wing Nationalist government in Wuhan. The Wuhan faction gave in and the Northern Expedition continued until the Beiyang government in Beijing was overthrown in 1928. The decade ended with the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and the retreat of the Nationalist government to Wuhan. GDP growth averaged 3.9 per cent a year from 1929 to 1941 and per capita GDP about 1.8 per cent.

Presidential Palace (Nanjing) museum and former presidential palace in Nanjing, China

The Presidential Palace in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China since 1927 until the capital was relocated to Taipei in 1949. It is now a museum called the China Modern History Museum. It is located at No.292 Changjiang Road, in the Xuanwu District of Nanjing.

In the history of political parties in China, the first major party in China was the Kuomintang (KMT), which moved to Taiwan in 1949. It was founded in Guangdong Province on August 25, 1912 from a union of several revolutionary groups. The Republic of China was founded by Kuomintang's leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen later that year. In 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society, and an informal political network.

The Kuomintang is a Chinese political party that ruled China 1927–48 and then moved to Taiwan. The name translates as "China's National People's Party" and was historically referred to as the Chinese Nationalists. The Party was initially founded on 25 August 1912, by Sun Yat-sen but dissolved in November 1913. It reformed on October 10th 1919, again led by Sun Yat-sen, and became the ruling party in China. After Sun's death, the party was dominated from 1927 to 1975 by Chiang Kai-shek. Though the KMT lost the civil war with the Communist Party of China in 1949, the party took control of Taiwan and remains a major political party of the Republic of China based in Taiwan.

Economic history of China (1912–49) economy during the Republican era

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, China underwent a period of instability and disrupted economic activity. During the Nanjing decade (1927–1937), China advanced in a number of industrial sectors, in particular those related to the military, in an effort to catch up with the west and prepare for war with Japan. The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and the following Chinese civil war caused the retreat of the Republic of China and formation of the People's Republic of China.

Cheng Qian Chinese politician

Cheng Qian was a Chinese military general and revolutionary. He occupied a number of significant military and political posts in the Kuomintang and in Sun Yat-Sen's government from the late 1910s through the 1940s. By the late 1940s he was one of the most powerful members of the Kuomintang, and in 1948, he was a successful candidate for the vice-presidency of the KMT Nationalist government. He was also Governor of Hunan, his native province and in whose political affairs he had been active all his life. In August 1949, he peacefully surrendered to the Communists, who were rapidly advancing on Guangzhou, then the seat of the KMT government, hastening the collapse of the defense of the KMT National Revolutionary Army. After 1949, Cheng held several important political positions in the People's Republic of China until his death in 1968.



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  37. "The Republic of China Yearbook 2008 / CHAPTER 4 Government". Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-28.[ dead link ]
  38. Wilbur, Clarence Martin. The Nationalist Revolution in China, 1923–1928. Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 190.
  39. National Institute for Compilation and Translation of the Republic of China (Taiwan): Geography Textbook for Junior High School Volume 1 (1993 version): Lesson 10: pages 47 to 49
  40. 1945年「外モンゴル独立公民投票」をめぐる中モ外交交渉.
  41. Sun Jian, pages 613–614 [ citation needed ]
  42. Sun Jian, pg 1059–1071
  43. Sun Jian, pg 1353
  44. 1 2 Sun Jian, page 1089
  45. Sun Jian, page 615-616
  46. Sun Jian, page 1319
  47. Sun Jian, pg 1237–1240
  48. Sun Jian, page 617-618
  49. Gary Marvin Davison. A short history of Taiwan: the case for independence. Praeger Publishers. p. 64. ISBN   0-275-98131-2. Basic literacy came to most of the school-aged populace by the end of the Japanese tenure on Taiwan. School attendance for Taiwanese children rose steadily throughout the Japanese era, from 3.8 percent in 1904 to 13.1 percent in 1917; 25.1 percent in 1920; 41.5 percent in 1935; 57.6 percent in 1940; and 71.3 percent in 1943.
  50. Schillinger, Nicolas (2016). The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China: The Art of Governing Soldiers. Lexington Books. p. 2. ISBN   978-1498531689.
  51. Westad, Odd (2003). Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. Stanford University Press. p. 305. ISBN   978-0-8047-4484-3.