Paralympic association football

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Paralympic football consists of adaptations of the sport of association football for athletes with a physical disability. These sports are typically played using International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) rules, with modifications to the field of play, equipment, numbers of players, and other rules as required to make the game suitable for the athletes.

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.

FIFA International governing body of association football

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, and eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991.

Contents

The two most prominent versions of Paralympic football are 5-a-side football for athletes with visual impairments, and 7-a-side football for athletes with cerebral palsy.

Cerebral palsy A group of disorders affecting the development of movement and posture, often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, and behavior. It results from damage to the fetal or infant brain.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people and over time. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles, and tremors. There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing, swallowing, and speaking. Often, babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl or walk as early as other children of their age. Other symptoms include seizures and problems with thinking or reasoning, which each occur in about one third of people with CP. While symptoms may get more noticeable over the first few years of life, underlying problems do not worsen over time.

5-a-side football

5-a-side football, also known as futsal and blind football, is an adaptation of football for athletes with visual impairments including blindness. The sport, governed by the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA), is played with modified FIFA rules. The field of play is smaller, and is surrounded by boards. Teams are reduced to five players, including the goalkeeper, per team. Teams may also use one guide, who is positioned off the field of play, to assist in directing players. The ball is equipped with a noise-making device to allow players to locate it by sound. Matches consist of two 25-minute halves, with a ten-minute break at half-time.

Five-a-side football variation of association football with five members per side

Five-a-side football is a variation of association football, in which each team fields five players. Other differences from football include a smaller pitch, smaller goals, a reduced game duration. Matches are played indoors, or outdoors on AstroTurf or artificial grass pitches that may be enclosed within a barrier or "cage" to prevent the ball from leaving the playing area and keep the game constantly flowing.

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.

The International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) is a nonprofit organisation founded 1981 in Paris, France. IBSA's mission is to promote the full integration of blind and partially sighted people in society through sport and to encourage people with a visual impairment to take up and practice sports. IBSA is a full and founding member of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

Brazil vs. Argentina in the Final of the Football for 5 at the 2007 Parapan American Games in Rio de Janeiro Football 5 Parapan 2007 Final.jpg
Brazil vs. Argentina in the Final of the Football for 5 at the 2007 Parapan American Games in Rio de Janeiro

Football 5-a-side players are assigned to one of three sport classes based on their level of visual impairment:

Visual acuity clarity of vision

Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.

Teams are permitted to use sighted athletes as goalkeepers and guides; sighted goalkeepers cannot have been registered with FIFA for at least five years.

A sighted guide is a person who guides a person with blindness or vision impairment.

Two types of competition exist. For Class B1 games, only athletes with sport class B1 are permitted as players, with the exception of the goalkeepers and the guides, who may be class B2, B3, or sighted. For Class B2/B3 games, teams can field players in sport classes B2 and B3; at least two B2 players must be on the field at all times.

5-a-side football in Europe was developed in Spain. The first Spanish national championships took place in Spain in 1986. In South America, there are records of a Brazilian Tournament organized in 1980. European and American Championships took place in 1997, followed by the first World Championships in 1998. The sport was added to the Summer Paralympic Games in 2004.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Paralympic Games major international sport event for people with disabilities

The Paralympics is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held almost immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).

Brazil was champion of the world tournaments in 1998, 2000, 2010 and 2014 [1] and Argentina won in 2004 and 2006.

IBSA Blind Football World Championships (Men's B1)

YearVenueWinnersScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teams
1998
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
Campinas
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1–0Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 2–0Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 6
2000
Details
Flag of Spain.svg
Jerez
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 3–0Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 4–0Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 8
2002
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
Rio de Janeiro
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 4–2Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2–0Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 9
2006
Details
Flag of Argentina.svg
Buenos Aires
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1–0Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay 2–1Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 8
2010
Details
Flag of England.svg
Hereford
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2–0Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1–0Flag of England.svg  England 10
2014
Details
Flag of Japan.svg
Tokyo
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1–0Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0–0 (2-0 in Penalty)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 12
2018
Details
Flag of Spain.svg
Madrid
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2–0Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2–1Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 16

IBSA Blind Football World Championships (Men's B2/B3=Partially Sighted)

YearVenueWinnersScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teams
1998
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
Campinas
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 3–2Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 9–2Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 6
2002
Details
Flag of Italy.svg
Varese
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 14–2Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 3–2Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 12
2013
Details
Flag of Japan.svg
Miyagi
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1–0 (AET)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Flag of England.svg  England 14–0Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4
2017
Details
Flag of Italy.svg
Cagliari
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 3–0Flag of England.svg  England Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2–2 (2-1 in Penalty)Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 8
2021
Details

IBSA Blind Football World Championships (Women's B1)

not yet

IBSA Blind Football World Championships (Women's B2/B3=Partially Sighted)

not yet

Blind Football at the IBSA World Games

Men's B1

YearVenueWinnersScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teams
2007
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
São Paulo
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 2–0Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 0–0(1-0 in Penalty)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4
2011
Details
Flag of Turkey.svg
Antalya
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 3–0Flag of France.svg  France Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 3–0Flag of England.svg  England 7
2015
Details
Flag of South Korea.svg
Seoul
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 2–1Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1–0Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 9
2019
Details

Men's B2/B3

YearVenueWinnersScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teams
2007
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
São Paulo
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 1–1(3-2 in Penalty)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 4–0Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 4
2011
Details
Flag of Turkey.svg
Antalya
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 5–1Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 7–4Flag of England.svg  England 9
2015
Details
Flag of South Korea.svg
Seoul
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 3–1Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2–1Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 5
2019
Details

Women's B1

Women's B2/B3

IBSA Blind Football Asian Championships

Until 2017 only in Men's B1 (not Women's and not Men's B2/B3)

YearVenueWinnersScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teams
2005
Details
Flag of Vietnam.svg
Ho Chi Minh City
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Round RobinFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Round Robinnone3
2007
Details
Flag of South Korea.svg
Seoul
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 3–0Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 1–0Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 4
2009
Details
Flag of Japan.svg
Tokyo
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2–0Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0–0 (1-0 in Penalty)Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 5
2011
Details
Flag of Japan.svg
Sendai
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1–0Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 2–0Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 4
2013
Details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Beijing
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 0–0 (3-2 in Penalty)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Round Robinnone3
2015
Details
Flag of Japan.svg
Tokyo
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 0–0 (1-0 in Penalty)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0–0 (2-1 in Penalty)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 6
2017
Details
Flag of Malaysia.svg
Kuala Lumpur
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2–0Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 2–0Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 6

Blind Football at the Asian Para Games

Until 2014 only in Men's B1 (not Women's and not Men's B2/B3)

YearVenueWinnersScoreRunners-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teams
2010
Details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Guangzhou
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1–0Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 0–0 (2-1 in Penalty)Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 5
2014
Details
Flag of South Korea.svg
Incheon
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Round RobinFlag of Japan.svg  Japan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Round RobinFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 5

IBSA Blind Football European Championships

IBSA Blind Football American Championships

IBSA Blind Football African Championships

7-a-side football

7-a-side football is an adaptation of association football for athletes with cerebral palsy and other neurological disorders, including stroke and traumatic brain injury. The sport is governed by the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). The sport is played with modified FIFA rules. Among the modifications are a reduced field of play, a reduction in the number of players, elimination of the offside rule, and permission for one-handed throw-ins. Matches consist of two thirty-minute halves, with a fifteen-minute half-time break.

Players competing in 7-a-side football are given a sport class based on their level of disability. Eligible classes are:

Teams must field at least one class C5 or C6 player at all times. No more than one players of class C8 are permitted to play at the same time.

International competition in 7-a-side football began at the 1978 CP-ISRA International Games in Edinburgh, Scotland. The sport was added to the Summer Paralympic Games at the 1984 Summer Paralympics in New York City, U.S., and has been played at every Summer Games since.

World CP Football Championships

World Championships and International Cups

YearHostWinnerScoreRunner-upThird placeScoreFourth placeNumber of teamsRef.
1982
Details
Flag of Denmark.svg
Greve (CPG)
Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland
2–0 Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
Belgium
no information available 2 8 [2] [3]
1986
Details
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
Gits (CPG)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
3–0 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
Belgium
Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland
3 Flag of Portugal.svg
Portugal
6 [2] [3]
1990
Details
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Assen (WC)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
5–0 Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
Belgium
no information available 2 5 [2] [3]
1994
Details
Flag of Ireland.svg
Dublin (WC)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
2–0 Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
Belgium
3 Flag of Spain.svg
Spain
[2] [3]
1998
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
Rio de Janeiro (WC)
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
3–1 Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
3–2 Flag of Spain.svg
Spain
11 [2]
2001
Details
Flag of England.svg
Nottingham (CPG)
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
3–1 Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
2–0 Flag of Iran.svg
Iran
13 [4]
2003
Details
Flag of Argentina.svg
Buenos Aires (WC)
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
3–1 Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
2–1 Flag of Argentina.svg
Argentina
[2]
2005
Details
Flag of the United States.svg
New London (CPG)
Flag of Russia.svg / Flag of Ukraine.svg
Russia Ukraine
no score found Flag of Russia.svg / Flag of Ukraine.svg
Russia Ukraine
Flag of Iran.svg
Iran
9–0 Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
13 [3]
2007
Details
Flag of Brazil.svg
Rio de Janeiro (WC)
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
2–1 Flag of Iran.svg
Iran
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
2–0 Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
16 [2] [5]
2009
Details
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Arnhem (IC)
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
0–0 ( a.e.t. )
(9–8 p.)
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
Flag of Iran.svg
Iran
1–0 Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
12 [6]
2011
Details
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Assen, Emmen, Hoogeveen (WC)
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
6–1 Flag of Iran.svg
Iran
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
8–3 Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
16 [2] [7]
2013
Details
Flag of Spain.svg
Sant Cugat del Vallès (Cup)
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
1–0 Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
4–0 Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland
16 [8]
2015
Details
Flag of England.svg
Burton-upon-Trent (WC)
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
1–0 Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
Flag of Brazil.svg
Brazil
6–0 Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands
16 [2] [9]
2017
Details
Flag of Argentina.svg
San Luis (WC)
Flag of Ukraine.svg
Ukraine
1–0 Flag of Iran.svg
Iran
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia
2–0 Flag of England.svg England 16 [10]
2019
Details
not forgiven (Cup)Future eventsFuture events
2020
Details
not forgiven (Top8)Future eventsFuture events8
2021
Details
not forgiven (WC)Future eventsFuture events
2023
Details
not forgiven (Cup)Future eventsFuture events
2024
Details
not forgiven (Top8)Future eventsFuture events8
2025
Details
not forgiven (WC)Future eventsFuture events
2 = There is no information on the homepage of the IFCPF
3 = no score found

See also

Related Research Articles

The Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA) is the leading international sports and recreation association for cerebral palsy and related neurological conditions. CPISRA organise recreational opportunities, develop adaptive sports and organise sport events for people with Cerebral Palsy and related neurological conditions.

Mexico national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Mexico that represents the team in international competitions. The country has never participated at the Paralympics.

Finland national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Finland that represents the team in international competitions. Finland has participated in a number of international tournaments, but never the Paralympic Games. At the 2011 IFCPF World Championships, the team finished fifteenth in a sixteen deep field.

Spain national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Spain that represents the team in international competitions. The team has participated in the Paralympic Games and the IFCPF World Championships. Their best finish in their three Paralympic Games appearances was a bronze medal at the 1996 Summer Paralympics.

Germany national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Germany that represents the team in international competitions. The team has never participated at the Paralympic Games but has participated at several international tournaments.

Denmark national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Denmark that represents the team in international competitions. The team has never participated in the Paralympic Games but has been involved with several international tournaments.

Japan national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Japan that represents the team in international competitions. The team has been active in recent years, and was ranked 16th in the world in 2016. At the 2015 IFCPF World Championships, they finished fifteenth. At the 2014 Asian Para Games, they finished second. Japan has never competed at the Paralympic Games.

Venezuela national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Venezuela that represents the team in international competitions. At the 2015 IFCPF World Championships, the team finished thirteenth in a fifteen deep field.

Canada national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Canada that represents the team in international competitions. Canada has participated in a number of international tournaments and IFCPF World Championships. In the most recent edition they finished 10th, after losing their placement match to Scotland in extra time. They have appeared in one Paralympic Games, 1984.

Portugal national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Portugal that represents the team in international competitions. The team has appeared at four Paralympic Games, with their best finish being a silver medal at the 1992 Summer Paralympics in Barcelona. At the most recent IFCPF World Championships, the team finished 11, winning their placement match against Australia on penalty kicks.

England national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for England that represents the team in international competitions. The team was ranked 7th in the world in 2016. The team has participated in a number of international competitions. At the 2015 IFCPF World Championships, the team finished fifth, an improvement from 2011 when they finished tenth.

Netherlands national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for the Netherlands that represents the team in international competitions. The team has participated in every Paralympic Games since the sport made its debut in 1988, winning gold medals in 1988, 1992 and 1996. At the most recent IFCPF World Championships in 2015, they finished fourth. They had first place finishes at the World Championships in 1986, 1990 and 1994.

Ireland national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Ireland that represents the team in international competitions. They have participated in several Paralympic Games and World Championships. They have won two bronze medals and a silver at the Paralympics. Their best finish at the World Championships was first at the 1982 edition in Denmark.

Argentina national cerebral palsy football team

Argentina national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Argentina that represents the team in international competitions. Their best world ranking sixth and their lowest was ninth. Argentina has competed at both the IFCPF World Championships and the Paralympic Games, but has never finished in the medals in either event.

Brazil national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Brazil that represents the team in international competitions. The team has been active internationally, and was ranked third in the world in 2016. At the 2015 IFCPF World Championships, they came away with a bronze. This was an improvement on 2011 when they finished fourth. Their best ever finish was second at the 2003 World Championships. Appearing at multiple Paralympic Games, Brazil won silver in 2004 and bronze in 2008.

Russia national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Russia that represents the team in international competitions. The team has participated at multiple Paralympic Games, winning gold in the 2000 and 2012 editions. Russia won the IFCPF World Championships in 1998, 2007, 2011 and 2015.

Ukraine national cerebral palsy football team is the national cerebral football team for Ukraine that represents the team in international competitions. The country has appeared at the Paralympic Games in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012 where they have medaled each time. At the 2015 IFCPF World Championships, Ukraine finished second. This bettered the 2011 edition where they finished third.

International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) is the world governing body for cerebral palsy football. It was founded in January 2015, when the governance of the sport transferred from the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA) to the IFCPF. It is a member organization, with members from five different continental zones. The IFCPF has relationships with other international association football sporting bodies. It organizes tournaments for the sport, and is in charge of Paralympic Games inclusion and participation. The IFCPF is a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) signatory, and international footballers may be subject to out-of-competition doping controls.

Cerebal palsy football, also called 7-a-side football or Paralympic football, is an adaptation of association football for athletes with cerebral palsy and other neurological disorders, including stroke and traumatic brain injury. From 1978 to 2014, cerebral palsy football was governed by the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA). In January 2015, governance of the sport was taken over by the International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football.

The Cerebral Palsy Games are a multi-sport competition for athletes with a disability, which under the former name of the International Stoke Mandeville Games were the forerunner of the Paralympic Games. The competition has been formerly known as the International Cerebral Palsy Games or the Stoke Mandeville Games. Since the 1990s the Games are organized by the organisation Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA), so they called also CPISRA World Games.

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