There are three known thrombin receptors, termed PAR1, PAR3 and PAR4 (PAR for protease-activated receptor).
These receptors are members of the 7-transmembrane g protein-coupled family of receptors, however, their method of activation is unique. Thrombin, a serine protease, binds to and cleaves the extracellular N-terminal domain of the receptor. A tethered ligand corresponding to the new N-terminus, SFLLRN, is then unmasked, binding to the second extracellular loop of the receptor and activating it.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking hundreds of years. Proteolysis is typically catalysed by cellular enzymes called proteases, but may also occur by intra-molecular digestion. Low pH or high temperatures can also cause proteolysis non-enzymatically.
A protease is an enzyme that catalyzes proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or single amino acids. They do this by cleaving the peptide bonds within proteins by hydrolysis, a reaction where water breaks bonds. Proteases are involved in many biological functions, including digestion of eaten/swallowed proteins, protein catabolism, and cell signalling.
Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as well as deposition and maturation of fibrin.
Fibrin is a fibrous, non-globular protein involved in the clotting of blood. It is formed by the action of the protease thrombin on fibrinogen, which causes it to polymerize. The polymerized fibrin, together with platelets, forms a hemostatic plug or clot over a wound site.
Thrombin is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene. Prothrombin is proteolytically cleaved to form thrombin in the clotting process. Thrombin in turn acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin, as well as catalyzing many other coagulation-related reactions.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system. Antithrombin is a glycoprotein produced by the liver and consists of 432 amino acids. It contains three disulfide bonds and a total of four possible glycosylation sites. α-Antithrombin is the dominant form of antithrombin found in blood plasma and has an oligosaccharide occupying each of its four glycosylation sites. A single glycosylation site remains consistently un-occupied in the minor form of antithrombin, β-antithrombin. Its activity is increased manyfold by the anticoagulant drug heparin, which enhances the binding of antithrombin to factor IIa (Thrombin) and factor Xa.
Urokinase, also known as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), is a serine protease present in humans and other animals. The human urokinase protein was discovered, but not named, by McFarlane and Pilling in 1947. Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, and it is also present in the blood and in the extracellular matrix of many tissues. The primary physiological substrate of this enzyme is plasminogen, which is an inactive form (zymogen) of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolytic cascade that, depending on the physiological environment, participates in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation. This cascade had been involved in vascular diseases and cancer progression.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIX, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals. Activated protein C (APC) performs these operations primarily by proteolytically inactivating proteins Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. APC is classified as a serine protease as it contains a residue of serine in its active site. In humans, protein C is encoded by the PROC gene, which is found on chromosome 2.
Protease-activated receptors are a subfamily of related G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by cleavage of part of their extracellular domain. They are highly expressed in platelets, and also on endothelial cells, myocytes and neurons.
Plasminogen activators are serine proteases that catalyze the activation of plasmin via proteolytic cleavage of its zymogen form plasminogen. Plasmin is an important factor in fibrinolysis, the breakdown of fibrin polymers formed during blood clotting. There are two main plasminogen activators: urokinase (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Tissue plasminogen activators are used to treat medical conditions related to blood clotting including embolic or thrombotic stroke, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism.
Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142, is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes. Its role in the clotting process is the initiation of thrombin formation from the zymogen prothrombin. Thromboplastin defines the cascade that leads to the activation of factor X—the tissue factor pathway. In doing so, it has replaced the previously named extrinsic pathway in order to eliminate ambiguity.
Cathepsin S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSS gene. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation signals exist for this gene.
Protease activated receptor 3 (PAR-3) also known as coagulation factor II receptor-like 2 (F2RL2) and thrombin receptor-like 2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2RL2 gene.
Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) also known as coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1) or G-protein coupled receptor 11 (GPR11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2RL1 gene. PAR2 modulates inflammatory responses, obesity, metabolism, and acts as a sensor for proteolytic enzymes generated during infection.
Proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) also known as Protease-activated receptor 1 or coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2R gene. PAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor and one of four protease-activated receptors involved in the regulation of thrombotic response. Highly expressed in platelets and endothelial cells, PAR1 plays a key role in mediating the interplay between coagulation and inflammation, which is important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. It is also involved both in disruption and maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity, through interaction with either thrombin or activated protein C, respectively.
Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR-4), also known as coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2RL3 gene.
Serine protease hepsin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HPN gene.
Prader-Willi/Angelman region-1, also known as PWAR1, is a human gene.
Pseudoapoptosis can be defined from multiple viewpoints, with an underlying premise of the differences in cellular processes and states relating to apoptosis. Pseudoapoptosis can be referred to as an apoptotic-like cellular state that can be readily reversed, or as a process that induces rapid apoptosis through the introduction of drugs such as bleomycin.
Aureolysin is an extracellular metalloprotease expressed by Staphylococcus aureus. This protease is a major contributor to the bacterium's virulence, or ability to cause disease, by cleaving host factors of the innate immune system as well as regulating S. aureus secreted toxins and cell wall proteins. To catalyze its enzymatic activities, aureolysin requires zinc and calcium which it obtains from the extracellular environment within the host.
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