Tombulu language

Last updated
Tombulu
Minahasa
Native to Indonesia
Regionnorthern Sulawesi
Native speakers
(60,000 cited 1981) [1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tom
Glottolog tomb1243

Tombulu, also known as Minahasan language is an Austronesian language of northern Sulawesi in Indonesia. It is a Minahasan language, a sub-group of the Philippine languages.

Contents

It is a local language of the Minahasa people spoken in the city of Tomohon and in the villages under the Kota Tomohon administration such as Rurukan, Pinaras, Kumelembuai, Woloan, and Tara-Tara. It is also spoken in the villages under the administration of the Minahasa Regency in the Tombulu district, Tombariri district, Pineleng district, and two villages in the Sonder district, namely Rambunan and Sawangan.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Plosive/
Affricate
voicelessptkʔ
voicedbdɡ
Nasal mnŋ
Fricative voicelesssh
voicedz
Lateral lʎ
Trill r
Approximant wj

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close iu
Mid eəo
Open a

[2] [3]

Vocabulary

The Tombulu language is unique among the Minahasan languages in its pronunciation of the letter l. In the other four Minahasan languages the letter "l" is pronounced as is, but in Tombulu it is pronounced like the "th" of the English language.

For example: kulo meaning "white" would be pronounced as kutho

EnglishTombuluPronunciation
OneEsa
TwoZua
ThreeTellu
FourEpat
FiveLima
SixEnem
SevenPitu
EightWallu
NineSiou
TenMapulu
ElevenMapulu wo Esa
TwelveMapulu wo Zua
TwentyZua nga pulu
Twenty OneZua nga pulu wo Esa
YesEne
NoZei'kan
NorthAmian
SouthTimu
WestTalikuran
EastSendangan
HandLengan
HeadUlu
EarLunteng
EyeWeweren
StomachPo'ot
FeetA'e
GrandmaNene
GrandfatherTete
MomIna
DadAma
MeNiaku
YouNiko
WeKai
TheySera
Him, HerSia
FriendKaria
BeautifulFasung
FemaleWewene
MaleTuama
KidsK'oki
Female TeacherEnci
Male TeacherEngku
BadLewo
GoodLe'os
WaterZano
ShowerLemele
DrinkMelep
SchoolSumikolah
Can I have some?Wehane toyo
GiveWehape
HungryMa'arem
Full (Kenyang)Wesu
EatKuman
BreakfastSumokol
FishSeza
Good MorningSyambae
Good DayTabea
WhenSawisa
WhereWisa
WhoSei
GoMange
StopMento
Sit downRumemez
StandRumendai
WalkLampang
WalkingLumampang
Let's GoMeimo
Until ThenTeintu Mo
BecausePah'paan
ButTa'an
OrKa'pa
Verytotoz
YesterdayKawi'i
TodayN'endo
TonightWengindo Mokan
TomorrowSando
Face (Menghadap)Sumaru
SleepTekel
SleepingTumekel
RiseSumaup
AscendSumosor
DescendMeros
LeftKawi-i
RightKakan
GodOpo
Holy SpiritAseng Lengas

Phrases & Examples

EnglishTombuluPronunciation
How are you?Kura-mo?
What's your name?Sei sia ngaranu?
Where's are you going?Mange wisako?
What are you doing?Ma'kura'ko?
Where are you from?Wisako ameye?
Who is he/she?Sei sia?
See you tomorrowSando mokan
How much?Pira?
Can I have some?Wehane toyo?
Thank youMakase mo
I love youKo'rara ateku
God of The HighestOpo Wananatas
God AlmightyOpo Wailan Wangko


The Lord's Prayer:

Our Father who art in heaven,

hallowed be thy name

Thy kingdom come.

Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread,

and forgive us our trespasses,

as we forgive those who trespass against us,

and lead us not into temptation,

but deliver us from evil.

For thine is the kingdom,

the power,

the glory Forever, Amin.



Penginaléi Ama’ nai:

Ama nai im wana sorga,

Loozen nai un ngaranNu

Maye mo ung kakolanoanmu

Mamualimoma un paazmu ti kaayahaan mo ti sorga

Wehape nikai inendo kenu kanen nai takaz maawez

Wo ampunganne un sumala nai

Tanu nikai mahampung wia setou simala wia nikai

Wo tiakkan ipah wali nikai wana an pema'waa

Ta'an izoula wia nikai witu kalewo'a

Pahpaan niko uman simaka kakolanoan,

Wo ung kawasa,

wo ung kawangunan takaz kauze-uze na, Ulit

Status

The Tombulu language is in critical need of revitalization. It is not being spoken as a first language in highly populated areas such as Tomohon, Pineleng, and Tanawangko. Traditionally Tombulu-speaking villages such as Woloan, Tara-Tara, Lolah, and Lemoh are not as so today. The Board of Education of the Indonesian government has not offered any help either to the Tombulu language or any other local languages that are in decline. It is responsible for the removal of the Muatan Lokal from the daily curriculum of all grade schools across the nation in the past few years. Muatan Lokal, if available, is a daily class which most provinces in Indonesia use to teach their new generation the local languages.

Tombulu is still spoken in villages such as Kayawu, Rurukan, Kumelembuai, Pinaras, Suluan, Kembes, Tombuluan, Rumengkor, Kali, Tondangow, Sawangan, and Rambunan all the way to the kids. Once in every month, it is used in sermons in its local churches.

At the beginning of 2013, an Indonesian-Tombulu dictionary was first released. A New Testament version of the Bible in Tombulu language was released in November 2018. [4]

Related Research Articles

Minangkabau language Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra

Minangkabau is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau. The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee.

The Mentawai language is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Mentawai people of the Mentawai Islands, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

Krio Dayak is a Kayan language of the Krio Dayak people in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Krio Dayak people

The Krio people are a Dayak ethnic group in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. They live on the upper course of the Krio River and speak the Krio Dayak language.

Language and Book Development Agency

The Language and Book Development Agency, formerly Language Centre is the institution responsible for standardising and regulating the Indonesian language as well as maintaining the indigenous languages of Indonesia. It is currently under the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

Lampung language Language in Indonesia

Lampung or Lampungic is an Austronesian language or dialect cluster with around 1.5 million native speakers, who primarily belong to the Lampung ethnic group of southern Sumatra, Indonesia. It is divided into two or three varieties: Lampung Api, Lampung Nyo, and Komering. The latter is sometimes included in Lampung Api, sometimes treated as an entirely separate language. Komering people see themselves as ethnically separate from, but related to, Lampung people.

Palembang, also known as Palembang Malay or Musi, is a Malayic language primarily spoken in about two thirds of South Sumatra Province in Indonesia, especially along the Musi River. It consists of two separate but mutually intelligible dialect chains: Musi and Palembang. The Palembang dialect is a koiné that was born in Palembang, the capital city of South Sumatra. It has become a lingua franca throughout major population centers in the province, and is often used polyglossically with Indonesian and other regional languages and dialects in the area. Since parts of South Sumatra used to be under direct Javanese rule for quite a long time, the speech varieties of Palembang and its surrounding area are significantly influenced by Javanese, down to their core vocabularies.

Kei is an Austronesian language spoken in a small region of the Moluccas, a province of Indonesia.

Minahasa Regency Regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Minahasa Regency is a regency in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its capital is Tondano. It covers an area of 1,148.87 km2 and had a population of 310,384 at the 2010 Census; this rose to 328,700 at the 2015 Intermediate Census and the latest official estimate is 342,110.

The Bima language, or Bimanese is an Austronesian language spoken on the eastern half of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which it shares with speakers of the Sumbawa language. Bima territory includes the Sanggar Peninsula, where the extinct Papuan language Tambora was once spoken. "Bima" is an exonym; the autochthonous name for the territory is "Mbojo" and the language is referred to as "Nggahi Mbojo." There are over half a million Bima speakers. Neither the Bima nor the Sumbawa people have alphabets of their own for they use the alphabets of the Bugis and the Malay language indifferently.

Kendayan, or Salako (Selako), is a Malayic Dayak language of Borneo. The exact number of speakers remains unknown, but is estimated to be around 350,000.

Talaud language Austronesian language spoken on the Talaud Islands

Talaud is an Austronesian language spoken on the Talaud Islands north of Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Tolaki (To'olaki) is the major language of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is an Austronesian language of the Celebic branch.

Mambai language (Timor)

Mambai language is spoken by the second largest ethnic group in East Timor, the Mambai people. The language is also called Mambae or Manbae.

Pakpak, or Batak Dairi, is an Austronesian language of Sumatra. It is spoken in Dairi Regency, Pakpak Bharat Regency, Parlilitan district of Humbang Hasundutan Regency, Manduamas district of Central Tapanuli Regency, and Subulussalam and Aceh Singkil Regency.

Bintauna language

Bintauna is a Philippine language spoken in North Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia.

Bantenese language

Bantenese language, Western Sundanese language or Western Sundanese dialect is a dialect of Sundanese language spoken by the Bantenese and Sundanese native to Banten and the western side of Bogor Regency. The western Bogor area comprises the Jasinga Raya region, which covers Jasinga, Cigudeg, Tenjo, Nanggung, Parungpanjang, Sukajaya districts and also the northwestern parts of Sukabumi Regency. The Bantenese language is the lingua franca of the Kasepuhan Ciptagelar traditional community in Cisolok subdistrict, and the Kasepuhan Banten Kidul traditional community.

Bungku people

Bungku people are an ethnic group who mostly resides in North Bungku, South Bungku, Central Bungku, and Menui Islands districts di Morowali Regency, in Central Sulawesi province of Indonesia. This ethnic group is divided into several sub-groups, namely Lambatu, Epe, Ro'tua, Reta, and Wowoni. Bungku people have their own language, called Bungku language, which is one of their characteristic and serves as a means of communication between themselves. They generally embrace Islam or Christianity.

Bedil tombak Early firearm from Nusantara archipelago

Bedil tombak or bedil tumbak is a type of early firearm from the Nusantara archipelago. The weapon consist of a gun or small cannon mounted on a wooden pole, forming a type of weapon known as "pole gun".

Milk pie Indonesian traditional pie

Milk pie is an Indonesian custard tart pastry consisting of a shortcrust pastry filled with egg custard and condensed milk. This traditional Indonesian dessert pastry is very flat with only one very thin layer of custard. The origin of this pastry is from Bali.

References

  1. Tombulu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Sahulata, D. (1993). Struktur bahasa Tombulu. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
  3. Makalew-Palar, J.A.; Kembuan, L.D.; Terak, R. (1994). Fonologi Bahasa Tombulu. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
  4. "Penyusunan Alkitab Bahasa Tombulu Butuh 17 Tahun". ManadoPostonline.com (in Indonesian). 30 November 2018.