Köppen climate classification

Last updated
An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
Af
Am
Aw/As
BWh
BWk
BSh
BSk
Csa
Csb
Csc
Cwa
Cwb
Cwc
Cfa
Cfb
Cfc
Dsa
Dsb
Dsc
Dsd
Dwa
Dwb
Dwc
Dwd
Dfa
Dfb
Dfc
Dfd
ET
EF Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map.png
An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
   Af
   Am
   Aw/As
   BWh
   BWk
   BSh
   BSk
   Csa
   Csb
   Csc
   Cwa
   Cwb
   Cwc
   Cfa
   Cfb
   Cfc
   Dsa
   Dsb
   Dsc
   Dsd
   Dwa
   Dwb
   Dwc
   Dwd
   Dfa
   Dfb
   Dfc
   Dfd
   ET
   EF

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, [2] [3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. [4] [5] Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system. [6] [7]

Climate classification way of classifying the worlds climates

Climate classification systems are ways of classifying the world's climates. A climate classification may correlate closely with a biome category, as climate is a major influence on biological life in a region. The most popular classification scheme is probably the Köppen climate classification scheme.

Wladimir Köppen German meteorologist

Wladimir Peter Köppen was a Russian-German geographer, meteorologist, climatologist and botanist. After studies in St. Petersburg, he spent the bulk of his life and professional career in Germany and Austria. His most notable contribution to science was the development of the Köppen climate classification system, which, with some modifications, is still commonly used. Köppen made significant contributions to several branches of science.

Rudolf Oskar Robert Williams Geiger was a German meteorologist and climatologist. He was the son of Indologist Wilhelm Geiger and the brother of physicist Hans Geiger. He worked with Wladimir Köppen on climatology, hence the Köppen–Geiger climate classification.

Contents

The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type. [8]

Tropical rainforest climate

A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate usually found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, and has at least 60 mm of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are typically designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is typically hot and wet.

Oceanic climate a type of climate characterised by cool summers and cool winters

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month.

Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, so the main climate groups are based on the different variety of vegetation that grows in climates belonging to each group. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within a region. [9]

Botany science of plant life

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, and approximately 20,000 are bryophytes.

Flora inventory of plant species in a given region

Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Sometimes bacteria and fungi are also referred to as flora, as in the terms gut flora or skin flora.

The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad). [10] :200–1

Trewartha climate classification

The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system first published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966. It is a modified version of the Köppen-Geiger system, created to answer some of its deficiencies. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate.

Middle latitudes

The middle latitudes of Earth lie between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" north, and between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" south. They include Earth's subtropical and temperate zones, which lie between the tropics and the polar circles. Weather fronts and extratropical cyclones are usually found in this area, as well as occasional tropical cyclones, which have traveled from their areas of formation closer to the Equator.

Meaning of symbols

Köppen climate classification scheme symbols description table [1] [8] [11]
1st2nd3rd
A (Tropical)f (Rainforest)
m (Monsoon)
w (Savanna, Wet)
s (Savanna, Dry)
B (Arid)W (Desert)
S (Steppe)
h (Hot)
k (Cold)
C (Temperate)s (Dry summer)
w (Dry winter)
f (Without dry season)
a (Hot summer)
b (Warm summer)
c (Cold summer)
D (Continental)s (Dry summer)
w (Dry winter)
f (Without dry season)
a (Hot summer)
b (Warm summer)
c (Cold summer)
d (Very cold winter)
E (Polar)T (Tundra)
F (Eternal winter (ice cap))

The Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main climate groups: A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). [12] The second letter indicates the seasonal precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat. [13] Summers are defined as the 6 month period that is warmer either from April–September and/or October–March while winter is the 6 month period that is cooler. [1] [11]

Group A: Tropical (megathermal) climates

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher, with significant precipitation. [1] [11]

Group B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates

This type of climate is defined by little precipitation.

Multiply the average annual temperature in Celsius by 20, then add

(a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the spring and summer months (April–September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October–March in the Southern), or
(b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer, or
(c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer.

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate). [1] [11]

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C (64.4 °F)) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), with k denoting that at least one month's averages below 0 °C (or −3 °C (27 °F)). The n is used to denote a climate characterized by frequent fog. [14] [15] [16]

Group C: Temperate (mesothermal) climates

This type of climate has the coldest month averaging between 0 °C (32 °F) [11] (or −3 °C (27 °F)) [8] and 18 °C (64.4 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). [11] [8]

Group D: Continental (microthermal) climates

This type of climate has at least one month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). [11] [8]

Group E: Polar and alpine (montane) climates

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature below 10 °C (50 °F). [1] [11]

Scheme

Group A: tropical/megathermal climates

Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperatures (at sea level and low elevations); all 12 months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher. They are subdivided as follows:

Tropical rainforest climate

All 12 months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 10° latitude of the equator. This climate is dominated by the doldrums low-pressure system all year round, so has no natural seasons in terms of thermal and moisture changes. [10]

Examples

Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Costa Rica; see, for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia).

(Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter).

Tropical monsoon climate

This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than 125 the total annual precipitation. [10] :208

Examples

Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate

Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than 125 of the total annual precipitation. [10] :208–11

Examples

Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone from the low teens to the mid-20s latitudes, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the ColombiaPanamá border to the Orinoco River delta, on the Atlantic Ocean (about 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months).

This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles forming the circum-Caribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon River—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the dry, arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco River's llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name.

Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days (during summer). [8] [18] This is the case in parts of Hawaii, northwestern Dominican Republic, East Africa, and the Brazilian Northeastern Coast. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of rain shadow effects during the 'high-sun' part of the year.

Examples

Group B: dry (desert and semi-arid) climates

These climates are characterized by actual precipitation less than a threshold value set equal to the potential evapotranspiration. [10] :212 The threshold value (in millimeters) is determined as:

Multiply the average annual temperature in °C by 20, then add (a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October through March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or (c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.

According to the modified Köppen classification system used by modern climatologists, total precipitation in the warmest six months of the year is taken as reference instead of the total precipitation in the high-sun half of the year. [19]

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate).

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), with k denoting that at least one month averages below 0 °C.

Desert areas situated along the west coasts of continents at tropical or near-tropical locations characterized by frequent fog and low clouds, despite the fact that these places rank among the driest on earth in terms of actual precipitation received are labelled BWn with the n denoting a climate characterized by frequent fog. [14] [15] [16] The BSn category can be found in foggy coastal steppes. [20]

Desert climate examples

Semi-arid examples

Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates

In the Koppen climate system, temperate climates are defined as having an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (26.6 °F), as noted previously) in their coldest month but below 18 °C (64.4 °F). The average temperature of −3 °C (26.6 °F) roughly coincides with the equatorward limit of frozen ground and snowcover lasting for a month or more.

The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern—w indicates dry winters (driest winter month average precipitation less than one-tenth wettest summer month average precipitation. s indicates at least three times as much rain in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer. f means significant precipitation in all seasons (neither above-mentioned set of conditions fulfilled). [1]

The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat—a indicates warmest month average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F) while b indicates warmest month averaging below 22 °C but with at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50.0 °F), and c indicates less than four months averaging above 10 °C (50.0 °F). [1] [11] [8]

Mediterranean climates

These climates usually occur on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 30° and 45°. [21] These climates are in the polar front region in winter, and thus have moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather. Summers are hot and dry, due to the domination of the subtropical high pressure systems, except in the immediate coastal areas, where summers are milder due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents that may bring fog but prevent rain. [10] :221–3

Examples

Dry-summer climates sometimes extend to additional areas (sometimes well north, or south of) typical Mediterranean climates, however the warmest month mean does not reach 22 °C (71.6 °F) they are classified as (Csb). [1] Some of these areas would border the Oceanic climate (Cfb), except their dry-summer patterns meet Köppen's Cs minimum thresholds.

Examples

Cold-summer Mediterranean climates (Csc) exist in high-elevation areas adjacent to coastal Csb climate areas, where the strong maritime influence prevents the average winter monthly temperature from dropping below 0 °C. This climate is rare and is predominantly found in climate fringes and isolated areas of the Cascades and Andes Mountains, as the dry-summer climate extends further poleward in the Americas than elsewhere. [10] Rare instances of this climate can be found in some coastal locations in the North Atlantic and at high altitudes in Hawaii.

Examples

Humid subtropical climates

These climates usually occur on the eastern coasts and eastern sides of continents, usually in the high 20s and 30s latitudes. Unlike the dry summer Mediterranean climates, humid subtropical climates have a warm and wet flow from the tropics that creates warm and moist conditions in the summer months. As such, summer (not winter as is the case in Mediterranean climates) is often the wettest season.

The flow out of the subtropical highs and the summer monsoon creates a southerly flow from the tropics that brings warm and moist air to the lower east sides of continents. This flow is often what brings the frequent but short-lived summer thundershowers so typical of the more southerly subtropical climates like the far southern United States, southern China and Japan. [10] :223–6

Examples

Subtropical-Dry Winter (Cwa) is monsoonal influenced, having the classic dry winter/wet summer pattern associated with tropical monsoonal climates.

Examples

Oceanic climate

Cfb climates usually occur in the higher middle latitudes on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 40° and 60°; they are typically situated immediately poleward of the Mediterranean climates, although in Australia and extreme southern Africa this climate is found immediately poleward of temperate climates, and at a somewhat lower latitude. In western Europe, this climate occurs in coastal areas up to 63°N in Norway.

These climates are dominated all year round by the polar front, leading to changeable, often overcast weather. Summers are mild due to cool ocean currents, although hotter, stable weather patterns can set in for periods of time, typically longer at the lower latitude range in the northern hemisphere. Winters are milder than other climates in similar latitudes, but usually very cloudy however not always wet. Cfb climates are also encountered at high elevations in certain subtropical and tropical areas, where the climate would be that of a subtropical/tropical rain forest if not for the altitude. These climates are called "highlands". [10] :226–9

Examples

Subpolar oceanic climates (Cfc) occur poleward of or at higher elevations than the maritime temperate climates, and are mostly confined either to narrow coastal strips on the western poleward margins of the continents, or, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, to islands off such coasts. They occur in both hemispheres, most often at latitudes from 60° north and south to 70° north and south. [10]

Examples

Highland climates

Dry-winter highland climate (Cwb) is a type of climate mainly found in highlands inside the tropics of Central America, South America, Africa and Asia or areas in the subtropics. Winters are noticeable and dry, and summers can be very rainy. In the tropics, the rainy season is provoked by the tropical air masses and the dry winters by subtropical high pressure.

Examples

Highland climates with uniform rainfall (Cfb) are a type of oceanic climate mainly found in highlands of Australia, such as in or around the Great Dividing Range in the states of New South Wales and Victoria, and also sparsely in other continents, such as in South America, among others. Unlike a typical Cwb climate, they tend to have rainfall spread evenly throughout the year. They have characteristics of both the Cfb and Cfa climates. Though unlike these climates, they have a high diurnal temperature variation and low humidity, owing to their inland location and relatively high elevation.

Examples

Group D: Continental/microthermal climates

The snowy city of Sapporo Odori Park Sapporo Snow Festival 2007.JPG
The snowy city of Sapporo

These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below 0 °C (or −3 °C (27 °F), as noted previously). These usually occur in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, normally north of 40°N. In the Southern Hemisphere, group D climates are extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land at 40–60°S, existing only in some highland locations.

Hot summer continental climates

Dfa climates usually occur in the high 30s and low 40s latitudes, with a qualifying average temperature in the warmest month of greater than 22 °C/72 °F. In Europe, these climates tend to be much drier than in North America. In eastern Asia, Dwa climates extend further south due to the influence of the Siberian high pressure system, which also causes winters there to be dry, and summers can be very wet because of monsoon circulation. Dsa exists at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates. [10] :231–2

Examples

Dsa exists only at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates.

Examples

Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climates

Dfb and Dwb climates are immediately poleward of hot summer continental climates, generally in the high 40s and low 50s latitudes in North America and Asia, and also extending to higher latitudes in central and eastern Europe and Russia, between the maritime temperate and continental subarctic climates, where it extends up to 65 degrees latitude in places. [10]

Examples

Dsb arises from the same scenario as Dsa, but at even higher altitudes or latitudes, and chiefly in North America, since the Mediterranean climates extend further poleward than in Eurasia.

Examples

Subarctic or boreal climates

Dfc, Dsc and Dwc climates occur poleward of the other group D climates, generally in the 50s and 60s North latitudes, occasionally reaching up to 70°N latitude. [10] :232–5

Examples:

Places with this climate (Dfd, Dwd, Dsd) have severe winters, with the temperature in their coldest month lower than −38 °C. These climates occur only in eastern Siberia. The names of some of the places with this climate have become veritable synonyms for extreme, severe winter cold.

Examples

Group E: Polar climates

In the Köppen climate system, polar climates are defined as the warmest temperature of any month is below 10 °C (50 °F). Polar climates are further divided into two types, tundra climates and icecap climates:

Tundra climate (ET and ET): Warmest month has an average temperature between 0 and 10 °C. These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American and Eurasian land masses (generally north of 70 °N although it may be found farther south depending on local conditions), and on nearby islands. ET climates are also found on some islands near the Antarctic Convergence, and at high elevations outside the polar regions, above the tree line.

Examples

These climates are a colder and more continental variants of tundra. They would have characteristics of the ice cap climate, but still manage to see monthly average temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F):

Examples

Ice cap climate (EF): This climate is dominant in Antarctica and inner Greenland, but also occurs at extremely high altitudes on mountains, above even tundra. Monthly average temperatures never exceed 0 °C (32 °F).

Examples

Ecological significance

The Köppen climate classification is based on the empirical relationship between climate and vegetation. This classification provides an efficient way to describe climatic conditions defined by temperature and precipitation and their seasonality with a single metric. Because climatic conditions identified by the Köppen classification are ecologically relevant, it has been widely used to map geographic distribution of long term climate and associated ecosystem conditions. [22]

Over the recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using the classification to identify changes in climate and potential changes in vegetation over time. [13] The most important ecological significance of the Köppen climate classification is that it helps to predict the dominant vegetation type based on the climatic data and vice versa. [23]

In 2015, a Nanjing University paper published in Nature analyzing climate classifications found that between 1950 and 2010, approximately 5.7% of all land area worldwide had moved from wetter and colder classifications to drier and hotter classifications. The authors also found that the change "cannot be explained as natural variations but are driven by anthropogenic factors." [24]

Trewartha climate classification scheme

The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966, and updated in 1980. It is a modified version of the 1899 Köppen system, created to answer some of the deficiencies of the Köppen system. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate.

For example, under the standard Köppen system, in the United States, western Washington and Oregon are classed into the same climate zone as southern California, even though the two regions have strikingly different weather and vegetation. Under the old Köppen system cool oceanic climates like that of London or Seattle were classed in the same zone as hot subtropical cities like Savannah, Georgia or Brisbane, Australia. In the United States, locations like Colorado and Iowa, which have long, severe winter climates where plants are completely dormant, were classed into the same climate zone as Louisiana or northern Florida which have mild winters and a green winter landscape.

Other Köppen climate maps

All maps use the ≥0 °C definition for temperate climates and the 18 °C annual mean temperature threshold to distinguish between hot and cold dry climates. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Polar climate Rosa Melano es hermana de Elver Galarga

The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers. Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F). Regions with polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth. Most of these regions are far from the equator, and in this case, winter days are extremely long and summer days are extremely short. A polar climate consists of cool summers and very cold winters, which results in treeless tundra, glaciers, or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice.

Desert climate type of climate

The desert climate, is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts may be the most common type of climate on earth.

Mediterranean climate climate zone

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles, and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator.

Humid continental climate Category in the Köppen climate classification system

A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal.

The climate of Salt Lake City varies widely. Lying in the Salt Lake Valley, the city is surrounded by mountains and the Great Salt Lake.

The climate of Bismarck in the U.S. state of North Dakota is humid continental, caused primarily by the combination of its mid-level latitude and location not far from the geographic centre of the U.S. Its summers are hot enough for it to border on having a Köppen Dfa classification, and precipitation is high enough for it to barely avoid being classified as semi-arid. The city's climate displays four very distinct seasons and great variation in temperatures over very short periods of time. Like other cities in the northern Great Plains, its climate is also fairly dry.

Milwaukee has a humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons and wide variations in temperature and precipitation in short periods of time. The city's climate is also strongly influenced by nearby Lake Michigan, which creates two varying climates within the Milwaukee area. The Urban heat island effect also plays a role in the city's climate, insulating it from winter cold, but keeping it cooler in spring and summer.

Climate of Alaska

The climate of Alaska is determined by average temperatures and precipitation received statewide over many years. The extratropical storm track runs along the Aleutian Island chain, across the Alaska Peninsula, and along the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska which exposes these parts of the state to a large majority of the storms crossing the North Pacific. The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate, in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate in the northern parts. The climate in Southcentral Alaska is a subarctic climate due to its short, cool summers. The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate, as the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska have both occurred in the interior. The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is an Arctic climate with long, cold winters, and cool summers where snow is possible year-round.

Panjab, Afghanistan City in Bamyan Province, Afghanistan

Punjab is the capital of Panjab District - a mountainous district in the southwestern part of the Bamyan Province, Afghanistan. The town is situated at 34°23'N 67°1'E and has an altitude of 2,758 m altitude, the population was 9,900 in the year 2004. There is an airport with gravel surface.

Humid subtropical climate category in the Köppen climate classification system

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions.

Sluice Point, Nova Scotia human settlement in Canada

Sluice Point is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the Argyle Municipality in Yarmouth County.

Van Daalen River river in Indonesia

The Van Daalen River is a river of Western New Guinea in the province of Papua, Indonesia. It is a tributary of Tariku River.

Jamboaye River river in Indonesia

Jamboaye River is a river in the province of Aceh, in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 1600 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Sekampung River river in Indonesia

Sekampung River is a river in Lampung province, southern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 130 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Komering River river in Indonesia

Komering River is a river in South Sumatra, Indonesia. It is a tributary of the Musi River.

The climate in Spain varies across the country. Spain is the most climatically diverse country in Europe with 13 different Köppen climates and it's within the 10th most climatically diverse countries in the world. Five main climatic zones can be distinguished, according to Guzman geographical situation and orographic conditions:

Khandkhel Town in Paktia Province, Afghanistan

Khandkhel or Khand Khil is a town in the Sayid Karam District of Paktia Province, Afghanistan. It is located 20 km to the northeast of Gardez, the capital of Paktia, and is 40 km to the southwest of Aryob.

Silcox Island

Silcox Island is an inhabited island in American Lake in Pierce County, Washington. It is in the city of Lakewood, Washington. Although the island has had homes built on it, it is still mostly forested.

References

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