Thyroid hormone receptor alpha

Last updated
THRA
Protein THRA PDB 1nav.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases THRA , AR7, CHNG6, EAR7, ERB-T-1, ERBA, ERBA1, NR1A1, THRA1, THRA2, c-ERBA-1, thyroid hormone receptor, alpha, thyroid hormone receptor alpha, TRalpha
External IDs OMIM: 190120 MGI: 98742 HomoloGene: 37747 GeneCards: THRA
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_199334
NM_001190918
NM_001190919
NM_003250

NM_178060
NM_001313983

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001177847
NP_001177848
NP_003241
NP_955366

NP_001300912
NP_835161

Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 40.06 – 40.09 Mb Chr 11: 98.74 – 98.77 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR-alpha) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group A, member 1 (NR1A1), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the THRA gene. [5] [6] [7]

Contents

Function

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear hormone receptor for triiodothyronine. It is one of the several receptors for thyroid hormone, and has been shown to mediate the biological activities of thyroid hormone. Knockout studies in mice suggest that the different receptors, while having certain extent of redundancy, may mediate different functions of thyroid hormone. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [5]

Interactions

THR1 has been shown to interact with:

Related Research Articles

The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone. TRs act as transcription factors, ultimately affecting the regulation of gene transcription and translation. These receptors also have non-genomic effects that lead to second messenger activation, and corresponding cellular response.

Nuclear receptor coactivator 1

The nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1) is a transcriptional coregulatory protein that contains several nuclear receptor interacting domains and an intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. NCOA1 is recruited to DNA promotion sites by ligand-activated nuclear receptors. NCOA1, in turn, acylates histones, which makes downstream DNA more accessible to transcription. Hence, NCOA1 assists nuclear receptors in the upregulation of DNA expression.

Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2

The nuclear receptor co-repressor 2 (NCOR2) is a transcriptional coregulatory protein that contains several nuclear receptor-interacting domains. In addition, NCOR2 appears to recruit histone deacetylases to DNA promoter regions. Hence NCOR2 assists nuclear receptors in the down regulation of target gene expression. NCOR2 is also referred to as a silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) or T3 receptor-associating cofactor 1 (TRAC-1).

Rev-ErbA Type of protein

The Rev-Erb proteins are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of intracellular transcription factors and key regulatory components of the circadian clock. There are two forms of the receptor, Rev-Erb alpha and Rev-Erb beta, which are each encoded by a separate gene . 

Small heterodimer partner Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

The small heterodimer partner (SHP) also known as NR0B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR0B2 gene. SHP is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. SHP is unusual for a nuclear receptor in that it lacks a DNA binding domain. Therefore, it is technically neither a transcription factor nor nuclear receptor but nevertheless it is still classified as such due to relatively high sequence homology with other nuclear receptor family members.

Rev-ErbA alpha

Rev-Erb alpha (Rev-Erbɑ), also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1), is one of two Rev-Erb proteins in the nuclear receptor (NR) family of intracellular transcription factors. In humans, REV-ERBɑ is encoded by the NR1D1 gene, which is highly conserved across animal species.

Rev-ErbA beta

Rev-Erb beta (Rev-Erbβ), also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 2 (NR1D2), is a member of the Rev-Erb protein family. Rev-Erbβ, like Rev-Erbα, belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors and can modulate gene expression through binding to gene promoters. Together with Rev-Erbα, Rev-Erbβ functions as a major regulator of the circadian clock. These two proteins are partially redundant. Current research suggests that Rev-Erbβ is less important in maintaining the circadian clock than Rev-Erbα; knock-out studies of Rev-Erbα result in significant circadian disruption but the same has not been found with Rev-Erbβ. Rev-Erbβ compensation for Rev-Erbα varies across tissues, and further research is needed to elucidate the separate role of Rev-Erbβ.

Retinoid X receptor alpha

Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-alpha), also known as NR2B1 is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RXRA gene.

Retinoic acid receptor alpha

Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-α), also known as NR1B1 is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RARA gene.

NCOA4

Nuclear receptor coactivator 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA4 gene. It plays an important role in ferritinophagy, acting as a cargo receptor, binding to the ferritin heavy chain and latching on to ATG8 on the surface of the autophagosome.

Thyroid hormone receptor beta

Thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR-beta) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group A, member 2 (NR1A2), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the THRB gene.

Liver X receptor beta

Liver X receptor beta (LXR-β) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. LXR-β is encoded by the NR1H2 gene.

MED1

Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 1 also known as DRIP205 or Trap220 is a subunit of the Mediator complex and is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MED1 gene. MED1 functions as a nuclear receptor coactivator.

NCOA6

Nuclear receptor coactivator 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA6 gene.

SRA1

Steroid receptor RNA activator 1 also known as steroid receptor RNA activator protein (SRAP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SRA1 gene. The mRNA transcribed from the SRA1 gene is a component of the ribonucleoprotein complex containing NCOA1. This functional RNA also encodes a protein.

MED24

Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 24 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MED24 gene.

BRD8

Bromodomain-containing protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRD8 gene.

TRIP11

Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP11 gene.

TRIP4 Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Activating signal cointegrator 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP4 gene.

Nuclear receptor coregulators are a class of transcription coregulators that have been shown to be involved in any aspect of signaling by any member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. A comprehensive database of nuclear receptor coregulators can be found at the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas website.

References

  1. 1 2 3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000126351 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. 1 2 3 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000058756 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. 1 2 "Entrez Gene: THRA thyroid hormone receptor, alpha (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog, avian)".
  6. Spurr NK, Solomon E, Jansson M, Sheer D, Goodfellow PN, Bodmer WF, Vennstrom B (Jan 1984). "Chromosomal localisation of the human homologues to the oncogenes erbA and B". The EMBO Journal. 3 (1): 159–63. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1984.tb01777.x. PMC   557313 . PMID   6323162.
  7. Dayton AI, Selden JR, Laws G, Dorney DJ, Finan J, Tripputi P, Emanuel BS, Rovera G, Nowell PC, Croce CM (Jul 1984). "A human c-erbA oncogene homologue is closely proximal to the chromosome 17 breakpoint in acute promyelocytic leukemia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81 (14): 4495–9. Bibcode:1984PNAS...81.4495D. doi:10.1073/pnas.81.14.4495. PMC   345617 . PMID   6589608.
  8. Dressel U, Thormeyer D, Altincicek B, Paululat A, Eggert M, Schneider S, Tenbaum SP, Renkawitz R, Baniahmad A (May 1999). "Alien, a highly conserved protein with characteristics of a corepressor for members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (5): 3383–94. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.5.3383. PMC   84131 . PMID   10207062.
  9. 1 2 De Luca A, Severino A, De Paolis P, Cottone G, De Luca L, De Falco M, Porcellini A, Volpe M, Condorelli G (Feb 2003). "p300/cAMP-response-element-binding-protein ('CREB')-binding protein (CBP) modulates co-operation between myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) and thyroid hormone receptor-retinoid X receptor". The Biochemical Journal. 369 (Pt 3): 477–84. doi:10.1042/BJ20020057. PMC   1223100 . PMID   12371907.
  10. Li D, Wang F, Samuels HH (Dec 2001). "Domain structure of the NRIF3 family of coregulators suggests potential dual roles in transcriptional regulation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): 8371–84. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.24.8371-8384.2001. PMC   100002 . PMID   11713274.
  11. Li D, Desai-Yajnik V, Lo E, Schapira M, Abagyan R, Samuels HH (Oct 1999). "NRIF3 is a novel coactivator mediating functional specificity of nuclear hormone receptors". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (10): 7191–202. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.7191. PMC   84712 . PMID   10490654.
  12. Yuan CX, Ito M, Fondell JD, Fu ZY, Roeder RG (Jul 1998). "The TRAP220 component of a thyroid hormone receptor- associated protein (TRAP) coactivator complex interacts directly with nuclear receptors in a ligand-dependent fashion". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (14): 7939–44. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.7939Y. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.14.7939. PMC   20908 . PMID   9653119.
  13. 1 2 3 Ito M, Yuan CX, Malik S, Gu W, Fondell JD, Yamamura S, Fu ZY, Zhang X, Qin J, Roeder RG (Mar 1999). "Identity between TRAP and SMCC complexes indicates novel pathways for the function of nuclear receptors and diverse mammalian activators". Molecular Cell. 3 (3): 361–70. doi: 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80463-3 . PMID   10198638.
  14. Lee SK, Anzick SL, Choi JE, Bubendorf L, Guan XY, Jung YK, Kallioniemi OP, Kononen J, Trent JM, Azorsa D, Jhun BH, Cheong JH, Lee YC, Meltzer PS, Lee JW (Nov 1999). "A nuclear factor, ASC-2, as a cancer-amplified transcriptional coactivator essential for ligand-dependent transactivation by nuclear receptors in vivo". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (48): 34283–93. doi: 10.1074/jbc.274.48.34283 . PMID   10567404.
  15. Lee SK, Na SY, Jung SY, Choi JE, Jhun BH, Cheong J, Meltzer PS, Lee YC, Lee JW (Jun 2000). "Activating protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ASC-2". Molecular Endocrinology. 14 (6): 915–25. doi: 10.1210/mend.14.6.0471 . PMID   10847592.
  16. Chang KH, Chen Y, Chen TT, Chou WH, Chen PL, Ma YY, Yang-Feng TL, Leng X, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW, Lee WH (Aug 1997). "A thyroid hormone receptor coactivator negatively regulated by the retinoblastoma protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (17): 9040–5. Bibcode:1997PNAS...94.9040C. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.17.9040. PMC   23019 . PMID   9256431.
  17. Tan F, Lu L, Cai Y, Wang J, Xie Y, Wang L, Gong Y, Xu BE, Wu J, Luo Y, Qiang B, Yuan J, Sun X, Peng X (Jul 2008). "Proteomic analysis of ubiquitinated proteins in normal hepatocyte cell line Chang liver cells". Proteomics. 8 (14): 2885–96. doi:10.1002/pmic.200700887. PMID   18655026.

Further reading

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.